On this day in 1950, students from the black community of Mosier Valley mounted a notable challenge to Texas segregation laws by attempting to enroll in the all-white Euless school. Mosier Valley, in Tarrant County, was founded by freed slaves in the 1870s. Black students attended the Mosier Valley school, part of the Euless school district. In August 1949 Euless school superintendent O. B. Powell attempted to transfer forty-six local black students to "colored" schools in Fort Worth, since busing them would be cheaper than maintaining the ramshackle Mosier Valley facility. Mosier Valley parents, with help from the NAACP, had the district enjoined. U.S. District Judge Joe Dooley observed in 1950 that Texas laws granted students the right to be educated in their own districts and that a district's schools were supposed to be funded on an equal basis. On September 4, Mosier Valley parents and 35 grade-school students entered the Euless school and tried to enroll. A crowd of some 150 whites gathered outside, harassed photographers, and jeered as the blacks later filed out. Powell had informed the blacks that state segregation laws took precedence over other education laws. Segregation lingered, served by a new Mosier Valley school (1953-68), but under federal duress in 1968 the Mosier Valley school closed and the Euless district was fully integrated.
On this day in 1839, the Cayuga, the former floating capitol of the Republic of Texas, was sold and disappeared from the historical records. The Cayuga was built in Pennsylvania in 1832 and arrived in Texas in August 1834 under the command of John E. Ross. The small river steamer was the first commercially successful steamboat in Texas, and played an important role during the Texas Revolution. She carried supplies for the revolutionary army, transported government officials and refugees, and was the temporary capitol of Texas in April 1836. On April 15 of that year Capt. William P. Harris, in command of the steamer, evacuated Harrisburg just ahead of Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna and his troops. The refugees included President Burnet, his cabinet, and all the inhabitants of the town. After stopping at Lynch's Ferry and New Washington the Cayuga preceded to Anahuac and Galveston, where the passengers disembarked. The cabinet members remained aboard and on April 19 were rejoined by Burnet, who had left the steamer at Lynch's Ferry to get his family and had narrowly escaped being captured by the Mexicans at New Washington. The business of the republic was conducted on the Cayuga through April 26.
On this day in 1942, the station hospital at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio was designated Brooke General Hospital, in recognition of Gen. Roger Brooke. Brooke entered the U.S. Army Medical Corps in 1901 and became a specialist in infectious diseases, especially tuberculosis. He served as commanding officer of the hospital at Fort Sam from 1928 to 1933. He died in 1940. The hospital's roots go back to 1870, when the Post of San Antonio was established on the Texas frontier; at that time the medical facility was a small dispensary in a log cabin. The first permanent hospital was built in 1886, and the current structure in 1936-37. Brooke General Hospital was expanded in 1946 to become Brooke Army Medical Center and was at one time responsible for all of the medical training in the army. Today, activities at Brooke cover almost every aspect of health care, postgraduate medical education, medical training, and medical research.