Section I: Chapter Activities
If you enjoy learning about and discovering history and being around young people, then working with a Junior Historian chapter will be an experience you will cherish. If you get excited about holding in your hand an artifact that was once held by George Washington or Sam Houston and want others to share that same passion, then being a JH sponsor is for you. If talking with someone who has experienced firsthand the anguish of war, the triumph of new found freedom or being the first to encounter something that changes all of our lives excites you, then this organization is where you belong. Those experiences and the desire to share them with others is what have united both sponsors and students in the Junior Historian program since 1939.
There are several things to consider when deciding how to get involved. How comfortable do you feel handling and organizing activities for a group of young people, how much time do you have to allocate, and how do you see a history-minded organization for young people fitting into your community? Your answers to these questions can help guide you to getting started. Anyone who feels very comfortable with organizing a group of young people might start by organizing some sort of social kick-off event for a few hundred students and attracting a large group of initial members, while others may feel more comfortable starting with six to ten members and building from there. Regardless of the size of the group, retention will be based on the perception by the members that the activities of the chapter are fun and worthwhile. Time is a finite item, and there is only so much of it that anyone has to allocate to his or her needs and desires. The amount of time you have available can impact your decision about how large or small to start and how active a chapter will be. Once the chapter is actively engaged, you will always wish you had more time for it. In order to choose the best structure for your community, you might consider the following models that could be used for a Junior Historian chapter:
School History Club Model - This is the most common approach with the potential to provide an easily accessible experience to a wide number of students on a completely voluntary basis. Benefits: appeals to a wide variety of student interests, can fulfill a variety of roles on a campus, attracts students across grade levels, provides an opportunity to build relationships outside the classroom, and offers easy access for all students. Difficulties: meetings are usually after/before school, which can cause limitations on activities and participation, and due to extracurricular nature, some costs such as transportation or supplies may or may not be covered by school administration.
Classroom Model – Over the years, this model has been used by several sponsors whose students are all part of their chapter for the year. Suggested activities are then incorporated as lessons and curricular tools for teaching the assigned content. This model can be quite effective when there are multiple chapters on one campus. Benefits: allows more time for students to participate in the suggested activities, can be implemented to varying degrees, is well suited for focusing on local resources and issues, and builds a cohesive history experience for the student when available at multiple grade levels. Difficulties: costs may or may not be covered by school administration, requires multiple teachers to participate to build multi-level program, and may conflict with rigid curriculum plans that require specific lessons and activities in specific timeframes.
Community Youth History Club Model - This model is very similar to the School Club model in that it is more open and accessible and is usually sponsored by a local museum, historical society or group interested in history. Benefits: open to a variety of students, not limited to one campus, may have more freedom with regard to travel and activities, and access to materials for research. Difficulties: access to young people for recruiting, transportation, and funding/costs.
Regardless of the model you choose, here are a few tips for getting started:
- Follow the steps below.
- Don’t be afraid to start small; if the young people see the value of what they are doing, it will grow.
- Get started as early in the school year as possible.
- Choose your activities, trips, etc., carefully so that you start with a bang and end with one; this will help with member retention.
- Be active and visible on campus to attract members.
- NEVER underestimate who will be interested in history; often many students who struggle in the classroom due to learning disabilities will excel in Junior Historians.
- Be prepared for immense joy and a few tears as you build this extended connection with your chapter.
The following steps are recommended in forming a Junior Historian chapter:
- Administrative Approval. The chapters function as educational adjuncts to the regular instructional program and should have administrative approval and support. Come with a plan and justification. Find out what level of financial support (transportation, admission fees and, supplies) you can expect. Discuss meeting times, time out of classes for research or meetings, and opportunities for students to contribute to the campus environment. The vast learning potential of the chapter experience is the program's greatest selling point.
- Select a Sponsor. The chapter sponsor is generally a teacher or instructor. Social studies, Texas history, and American history teachers comprise the majority of chapter sponsors; however, librarians, English teachers, special education, science teachers, social studies supervisors, and lay persons with the school administration's approval have developed some outstanding organizations. In fact, anyone who is willing to accept the responsibility may sponsor a chapter.
- Select a Cosponsor. The cosponsor may be either a teacher (some chapters have several cosponsors, all teachers) or a lay person interested in community history. The cosponsor is a key person in the chapter organization as he or she performs many support services--planning meetings, planning student projects, arranging field trips, contacting speakers and resource people, etc.
- Membership. There is no minimum number of students required to organize a Junior Historian chapter. Numbers and selection varies. In some schools chapter membership is a composite of both junior and senior high school students; in others it is limited to a single grade, a single class, or a combination of grades and/or classes. The organization and administration of the chapter is left to the discretion of the individual sponsor and should be structured to serve best each local situation.
- Organization. Organization creates the machinery for chapter activity, defines objectives, states how they will be achieved, identifies who will share the responsibilities, and cites terminal dates when the objectives will be completed.
The first chapter meeting should initiate the organizational process and should be well planned in advance with a printed agenda duplicated for distribution to everyone present. Announcements on the school bulletin board, on the public address system, and in the school newspaper will help assure good attendance. The sponsor should preside at the first meeting, or until a temporary student chairman is selected. The election of permanent officers should be postponed until all members are thoroughly familiar with the purposes of the organization. This also allows time for the members to become better acquainted, as the informed nomination and election of officers is one key to chapter success. The number and type of student officers is left to the discretion of each chapter; however, only functional positions should be designated. Non-functional officers, existing in name only, tend to destroy chapter purpose.
- Constitution. Many chapters adopt a constitution which defines specific objectives and outlines general operational procedures of the organization. A sample constitution follows; however, this should be adapted to meet the needs and requirements of each local organization. At the first or second chapter meeting a constitutional committee (see Committees below) may be appointed to draft a document for chapter consideration and approval.
- Chapter Meetings. Well planned and regularly scheduled meetings are essential for chapter success. Nothing destroys student morale quicker than a pointless meeting, called for no particular purpose, where time is consumed with undirected chatter, and ends with nothing accomplished.
Time and location of all regular chapter meetings should be announced early in the school year and should be included on the first meeting agenda. A copy of the chapter's annual calendar in the hands of each chapter member helps minimize meeting absenteeism.
Meeting time, frequency, location, and the types of programs planned, vary from chapter to chapter. Some chapters hold weekly, semimonthly, and monthly meetings, and meet before or after school, at activity periods, during history class, at night, or on weekends. Meetings are held at schools, churches, community centers, on local college and university campuses (with Webb Society co-sponsorship), bank auditoriums, public libraries, courthouses, youth centers, or at the homes of chapter members, sponsors, and cosponsors. Some chapters hold all meetings at the same location while others rotate meeting sites.
- Committees. Committees (assuming they are functional) assure an equal sharing of chapter responsibilities, simplify the sponsor's administrative role, define specific duties, and increase the opportunities for individual leadership and responsibility among chapter members. Committees fall into two categories: 1) standing committees; and 2) special committees. Standing committees might include the program committee, the field trip committee, the museum committee, the publicity committee, etc. Special committees should be formed to develop chapter projects and activities (see Section I, Units 2 & 3) as these objectives are defined by the executive committee. The executive committee, composed of chapter officers and standing committee chairman, functions as the chapter's top policy making body. Of course, the number and types of committees will vary, according to chapter size and the number and variety of active projects.
- Chapter Dues. Some chapters assess either monthly or annual dues. This is a local matter as no dues are sent to the state office.
- Charter. Once a chapter has established a constitution and elected officers, it is now ready to request its charter. If a chapter has existed previously at that school or organization, the original charter number will be re-issued. The Texas State Historical Association prepares an official charter for each Junior Historian chapter. In order to keep the form and process as updated as possible, the charter request and renewal forms are available on the Association’s website at http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/education/jh/app.pdf.
- Texas Historian Magazine. There is a minimum requirement of five subscriptions per chapter to the Texas Historian, the official publication of the Junior Historians. This journal contains the writings of Texas’s outstanding student historians, a variety of contests for subscribers, and serves as a communication channel between the state office and members. Subscriptions to the Texas Historian are also important because these small fees help to fund the entire Junior Historian program. Many chapters have 100 percent membership subscriptions.
- Southwestern Historical Quarterly. The Quarterly should be available to both teachers and students in the school or college library. This publication, representing the outstanding Texas history scholarship, is usually ordered by the librarian as part of the general library budget.
- Annual Chapter Renewal. Each fall the chapter sponsor will receive a reminder with the first Roadrunner newsletter on how and when to renew the chapter’s affiliation. That year’s subscription to the Texas Historian can be taken care of then, though additional subscriptions to the Texas Historian can be made until November 1 or as long as supplies last.
- National History Club Membership. As a member of the Junior Historians of Texas, all chapters located on school campuses with members in grades 6-12 will automatically be registered as a member of National History Club sponsored by the Concord Review. As a member of National History Club the chapter will receive the National History Club newsletter and be eligible to participate in their student recognition programs. The sponsor will automatically receive additional materials directly from National History Club.
JUNIOR HISTORIAN CONSTITUTION*
We, the members of the Junior Historians, in order to stimulate interest in the history of_____________ and ___________ County, add to the exhibits of the_______ Museum, assist in the collection of books and historical documents for the Texas section of the ___________Library, and to assist the____________ County Historical Commission to identify and preserve the historical landmarks in Texas, do hereby ordain and establish this constitution for the Junior Historians of _______________________ School, __________________ , Texas.
Article I (Name)
The name of this organization shall be the _______________ Junior Historians.
Article II (Membership)
All students who are interested in the history of our county and state shall be eligible for membership. Any former member may retain his or her membership until the age of twenty-one by paying current dues.
The dues of the chapter shall be ____________________.
All members are encouraged to subscribe to the Texas Historian at the current subscription price.
Article IV (Officers and their Duties)
Section I. The officers of the club shall be: president, first vice-president, second vice-president, secretary, treasurer, reporter, and club historian.
Section II. The duties of the president shall be: to preside over meetings, to appoint committees, and to perform any other duties proper to the office.
Section III. The vice-president shall preside in the absence of the president and shall be program chairman.
Section IV. The second vice-president shall be membership and publicity chairman.
Section V. The secretary shall keep a proper record of all meetings and the names and addresses of all members and shall conduct most of the correspondence of the club. Section VI. The treasurer shall collect all dues from members, receive any other money due the club, and pay bills when properly authorized.
Section VII. The reporter shall make reports to the local newspaper and school paper.
Section VIII. The club historian shall keep a scrapbook composed of clippings from the various newspapers, and a collection of the outstanding papers of the society and photographs of the various club activities.
Article V (Elections)
Officers shall be elected to serve for a year. Officers shall be proposed by a nominating committee with the floor open to further nomination for each office. No officer shall be allowed to hold the same office in succession.
Meetings shall be held on the _____________________ of every month, with exception of December and the summer months. There shall be at least two field trips per year.
All resignations will be submitted in written form to the president. Article VIII (Amendments) These bylaws may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members at any regular meeting.
Article IX (Attendance)
Members shall be uniform in attendance at regular meetings of the club with one unexcused absence allowed per semester. The members shall be required to notify the president, first vice-president, second vice-president, or secretary in event of absence.
Failure to do so shall be construed as an unexcused absence.
*This constitution form is a composite drawn from several chapters. Each new chapter is free to adapt this constitution to fulfill its needs and objectives. A modifiable copy of this constitution is available in the Resource Section.
The Community: A Laboratory for Learning. The community, whether urban or rural, holds a trove of teaching resources for the imaginative and innovative teacher. Within this laboratory for learning the students can explore firsthand the basic aspects of nearly every phase of living, and as they grow to maturity they can employ the ideas and concepts gained in community studies to understand the differences and likenesses in all cultures. The more students can learn about their own community, through discovery and involvement, the greater will be their comprehension of lifestyles elsewhere. Furthermore, it is pedagogically sound to begin with what is at hand, what is familiar, what is known; and then proceed to the remote, to the unfamiliar, to the unknown.
Using community resources in the classroom necessitates knowing what is available. An organized resource inventory, therefore, should include the following:
PEOPLE: citizens who know business conditions, public officials, officers of organizations, early residents, parents, people who have traveled widely, people who have a knowledge of the cultural affairs--past and present--of the community, people who are artists, musicians and writers, business and professional persons, workers in various industries, retired people, and people with interesting hobbies.
PLACES: libraries, county courthouses, museums, public and private institutions, industrial plants, business firms, farms and ranches.
THINGS: antiques, cultural artifacts, wearing apparel, historic markers, historic houses and sites, and significant architectural structures.
RECORDS AND PUBLISHED MATERIALS: records of schools and governmental agencies, churches, clubs and civic organizations, municipal records, records of historical societies, records of councils of social agencies, census reports, local directories, local or county histories, county records, newspapers, diaries, business and personal correspondence, maps, local laws and statutes, photographs, chambers of commerce pamphlets, folders of travel agencies, air, railroad and bus lines, trade associations, and publishing houses.
Chapter Activities: First Steps to Discovery and Involvement. Chapter activities, involving the collection, use, and preservation of the foregoing community materials, form the crux of the chapter experience. The following list is not definitive, as these activities represent only a few of the successful projects developed by various chapters. The key to the program’s wide appeal is that each chapter is autonomous and free to develop the projects and activities that are best suited to local needs and resources. This list, therefore, only suggests a beginning. Improvise as you proceed. Many pleasant and rewarding experiences await those who aid young people in becoming aware of their heritage.
Community Resource File. As many chapter activities are based on the inventory and collecting process, a card or electronic index should be kept on each source of community material and information. This index will eventually become a catalogue of all community historical resources, serving all who are interested in local history, and will be the first step toward developing interesting projects and activities. A suggested form to document and organize your resources can be found in the Resource Section of this handbook.
Activity 1. Collecting Historical Materials. The community historical inventory--also called "Attic Survey," and "Search for Our Past"--is a highly intriguing project that involves the entire chapter and frequently unearths a wealth of material in the community. Subsequently this material may be borrowed when needed for exhibition, as classroom teaching tools, or for an artifact fair or a temporary museum show. The general plan for the inventory is as follows:
First, the sponsor explains to the chapter members the need to preserve all forms of material culture, as cultural artifacts reveal the life pattern of those persons who possessed and used them.
Second, advance publicity through the local media and civic organizations announces the inventory and emphasizes that the students will not remove the artifacts, but they only want to locate and identify historically significant materials (artifacts, letters, photographs, wearing apparel, etc.). A public announcement might request that individuals make contact with the chapter to aid in the process of discovery. It should also be announced that at some future date the teacher, the chapter, or the local museum may ask to borrow some of these materials for public exhibition.
Third, once the community has been informed of the forthcoming inventory, the sponsor instructs the students or an inventory committee to contact individuals, businesses, and organizations which they know through their community or family connections. The goal is to survey as many homes, businesses, and organizations as possible through the student’s network of contacts, while ensuring student safety. The sponsor should explain carefully to the chapter members how they are to introduce themselves and explain to the community member the significance of the survey.
Fourth, a community resource form, is prepared for each item/person/place identified in the survey. It is important to maintain a paper copy of these records to safeguard this important information even if an electronic index is kept for primary use.
Activity 2. Collecting Diaries, Family Correspondence, and Business Records. (Items in Activity 2 may be included in the collections program outlined in Activity 1.) In their search for historical material, students should be made aware of the historical importance of diaries, personal correspondence, and business records. These often provide valuable insights into community life and reveal a facet of history that is found nowhere else. Diaries, family correspondence, and records of a local business have been the basis of some excellent articles published in the Texas Historian. (SEE the How-To Section for, A Student’s Guide to Historical Research and Writing.)
Activity 3. Collecting Traditional Family Recipes. An interesting approach to cultural and ethnic history is having the chapter members collect traditional recipes and record the history of the contributing families. Several chapters have printed and sold recipe collections as successful money-raising projects. (SEE the How-To Section for, Chapter Fund-Raising Projects.)
Activity 4. Collecting and Documenting Old Photographs. Photographs are interesting and valuable sources of historical information and provide an authentic record of how people looked, lived, worked, and played. An excellent chapter project, and one that will generate much interest and enthusiasm, is building a photographic collection. All possible information about the photograph should be secured from the donor and/or lender: the date, location, names of the people in the photograph, event, etc. This should be typed on a sheet of paper, and attached to the back of the photograph. Additional information may be gathered at a public "Photo Identification Party." These events have proven highly successful. Not only is much new information provided, but the publicity generated by the event usually attracts additional gifts of photographs. One method of preserving such photos is to scan them into digital images that can then be used for a variety of purposes with permission of the owner. Be sure to scan images at a minimum of 300 dpi for the best quality and use.
Activity 5. Recording Contemporary History with Photographs. Too often teachers and students become so concerned with collecting information about the past that they overlook the need to preserve the record of the present. As an extension of the project to build a collection of old photographs related to community history, chapter members should bring their collection up-to-date by photographing their community as it is, today. A good approach is to select a single topic--transportation, industry, recreation, commercial and residential buildings, holiday celebrations, civic and political meetings, or education--and develop it before going on to another topic. Good documentation and a comprehensive index enhances the value of any photographic collection. Such projects often lead to inquiries about how things appeared in the past, thus excellent research projects. Black and white photographs (8" x 10" glossy prints are best) possess the greatest lasting quality. It is also important to preserve the negatives. For a similar activity to so serve as a starting point, see the Save Our History Educator’s Manual in the Resource Section.
Activity 6. Recording Oral History. Although much state and national history has been recorded in published studies, oral recollections add a personal dimension to history not found in these sources. For example, social and economic interpretations of the Great Depression are readily available to the history student, yet only through personal recollections can its impact on the individual be determined. Also, the importance of oral history grows with the increased use of the telephone, and most especially since few people take the time to keep diaries or write their memoirs. Thus, when an individual dies, much local history is lost. Opportunities exist for these oral histories to be part of larger projects like the Veterans History Project discussed in the Other Activities, Contests and Awards segment. Be sure to investigate the precise guidelines for these outside sponsored projects.
Therefore, an important segment of local history can be preserved by chapter members who go into the community with tape recorders and collect the personal recollections of local citizens. To achieve maximum yield from this activity, the oral history program should follow some definite theme or topic. For example, some general topics for consideration are the local impact of the Great Depression, World Wars I and II, the changing highway system, disappearance of the railroad, the coming of air transportation, the reasons members of various minority groups came to Texas and settled in a particular community, and the impact of rural electrification on the local lifestyle. All oral history dates should be double checked for authenticity. (SEE the How-To Section for Interview Guidelines and the Resource Section for Fundamentals of Oral History from the Texas Historical Commission.) For a similar activity to so serve as a starting point, see the Save Our History Educator's Manual in the Resource Section.
Activity 7. Making Gravestone Rubbings and Cemetery Analyses. Data gathered from old cemeteries can provide much valuable information about the history of a community and the origin of its inhabitants. After compiling and analyzing headstone inscriptions, students raise specific questions. For example, why did so many people die in November and December 1918? In this specific instance, it probably was the result of the great 1918 influenza epidemic. The topic may be expanded further: what state, national, and especially international conditions contributed to this catastrophe? What preventative measures available now, could have lessened the impact of the epidemic? And what economic conditions removed great numbers of people from their familiar habitats? (This is using cemetery data within an inquiry teaching concept.) Other events such as Indian depredations, storms, epidemics, and local catastrophes may have caused simultaneous multiple deaths, which provide clues to local events of historical importance. Also studies of life expectancy (both male and female), child mortality, and the ethnic makeup of the community (based on last name spellings) within a given time frame are other spin-off benefits of a cemetery analysis.
Making the actual gravestone rubbing is another benefit of this chapter activity. The reasons are twofold: 1) rubbing highlights data that otherwise could not be deciphered on a deteriorating gravestone; and 2) gravestone rubbings, when mounted on heavy poster board, make interesting displays at a history fair or temporary museum show. The rubbing technique is as follows:
A large sheet of light colored paper (such as butcher paper) is attached to the face of the stone by using freezer tape or electrician's plastic tape. The paper is then rubbed with a piece of crayon, held flat. The high contrast of the rubbing increases the legibility of the inscriptions. A more consistent quality will result if the students rub horizontally (parallel with the lines of inscription) with uniform pressure. Various colored crayons may be used.
Additional resources for historic cemeteries and preservation can be found in the Preservation Guidelines Series prepared by the Texas Historical Commission located in the Resource Section.
Activity 8. Researching the Origin of Local Place Names. An organized study of the origin of local place names--streets, towns, communities, sites, rivers, creeks, mountains, schools, and public buildings--frequently reveals interesting facts about a community. While the designations frequently reveal something of the history of a region, they also reflect the ideals, beliefs, people, and events that were uppermost in the minds of those who selected the names. Some examples follow: Stillhouse Creek, Possum Kingdom Dam, Blackjack Community, Bell School House, Striker Creek, Waxahachie, Burro Mountain, Dead Man's Canyon, Sixshooter Junction, Skinout Mountain, Tarzana, Dime Box, Montgomery Gardens Road, Starr Avenue, Alto, Marathon, Raguet Street, Balcones Drive, and Castroville. Learning the origin ofthese names is a meaningful chapter activity, as they convey a sense of reality to students. Place name studies provide an interesting introduction to the ethnic groups that settled a community. Additional resources can be found in the Handbook of Texas, The Atlas of Historic Sites from the Texas Historical Commission and in the Guidelines for Historical Research and Official Markers found in the Resource Section.
Activity 9. Developing a Local Architecture Survey and Inventory. A study of local architecture adds a non-verbal dimension to classroom history instruction, while sharpening young people's awareness of the social, cultural, political, economic, geographic, religious, and ethnic influences reflected in buildings. More specifically, this chapter activity focuses on buildings and building designs as artifacts of cultural change, in addition to their local historical significance. Buildings are indeed meaningful "footnotes to history" and constitute the visual profile of every community, town, and city.
Chapter members should first learn the basic architectural styles and their histories so they will know what to look for in the survey and inventory. Next, they should inventory important buildings in the community and prepare a record of each, noting location, style of architecture, unique features, condition, historic significance (if any), list of occupants, published references to the building (newspapers, magazines, books, official records, etc.), and the floor plan. The buildings should be thoroughly documented, inside and out, with photographs. With the growing concern for preserving historic buildings for both aesthetic and historical reasons, chapter members can make an important contribution through this activity. In addition they can present slide shows on local architecture, and write articles for local newspapers on familiar structures that have played interesting roles in the community's history.
Activity 10. Researching and Writing Family History. Researching and writing family history is both a meaningful and rewarding classroom assignment, as well as a chapter activity. The benefits are multiple: first, in many cases the chapter members "discover" for the first time the backgrounds of their parents and grandparents; second, by learning something about their education, former occupations, former places of residence, reasons for immigrating to their present locale, citing interesting people they have known, and interesting events in which they have participated, young people see themselves as a part of a great chain of being never before realized, while recognizing their indebtedness to previous generations; and third, the teacher/sponsor gains a better insight into the personal background of the student/chapter members, while gaining a better knowledge of their ability to gather, arrange, and interpret data. Many chapter sponsors introduce this activity early in the school year for apparent reasons. In many cases the initial activity is expanded into a major research project for the writing contest (SEE the How-To Section for, A Student’s Guide to Historical Research and Writing and the Resource Section for Guidelines to Historical Research.) A variety of organizations, including the Texas State Genealogical Society, offer resources to assist with genealogical research.
Student-written family histories are excellent introductory projects to historical research and writing. Through the use of familiar and readily available materials, students learn the basic historiographic concepts. Also, in developing these introductory papers the students frequently discover family papers, correspondence, and diaries worthy of further research and writing. SUGGESTION: emphasize the difference between genealogy and family history. While the former is largely lineage and chronology, the latter is developed within a broader historical context. See the Resource Section for Guidelines for Researching Military History, if needed.
Activity 11. Folkways Collection Program. Disappearing pioneer skills and traditions are a significant part of regional heritage and offer a perceptive insight into the social evolution of a community. Collecting traditional recipes, offers an interesting approach to cultural and ethnic history. Also, audio-visual records of disappearing rural skills should be high priority chapter projects: shoeing horses, blacksmithing, hand-shearing sheep, making windmill repairs, making adobe bricks, making syrup, hand-weaving fishing nets, cultivating land with horse-drawn implements, furniture making, and hand-splitting shingles and boards. Each region has its individual pioneer traditions, therefore, emphasize local and regional uniqueness. Taped interviews and/or an explanatory narration, plus a photographic record of pioneer skills will help preserve that activity for the future.
Activity 12. Using the Southwestern Historical Quarterly Within A Critical Teaching-Learning Concept. The Quarterly, which contains outstanding scholarship on Texas and Southwestern history, may be used in a wide variety of teaching concepts. Back issues of the Quarterly can be found and searched at www.tsha.utexas.edu. Critical discussion of the articles sharpens the student's perception of historiographic excellence, stimulates his or her interest in creative writing, while broadening his or her knowledge of history. Discussion sessions (lab sessions or chapter meetings) may focus on some of the following points:
- Ask the students to give a critical overview of the assigned articles.
- Do you feel the author gave adequate coverage of the topic? Are there noticeable omissions?
- Is the topic treated as local history, or has the author projected the topic in a broad national and international context?
- Does the author treat the topic with candor or is there an apparent interpretive bias?
- What is the significance of this study?
- Has the author made a worthy contribution to history?
- Has the author "padded" his treatment of the subjects or does the material justify the length?
- Relating this topic to your home community, can you suggest additional research topics that should be developed?
- Based on the scope and interpretive content of the article, give an imaginary character sketch of the author's economic status, religion, political affiliation, ethnic origin, personal interests, home state, etc.
- Write a critical review of the articles.
Activity 13. Using the Texas Historian within a Critical Teaching-Learning Concept. One innovative Junior Historian sponsor developed a group reading-discussion plan that enables students to gain maximum benefit from the Texas Historian articles. Meeting in small groups, varying in size from twelve to twenty chapter members, the students come prepared to discuss the Historian articles. The discussions focus on content, writing style, interest level, type of research, and the various research sources used by the student writers.
Before reading each issue, students are instructed to be prepared to discuss the following points:
- Why was the topic chosen? Was it appealing?
- Was the title appropriate?
- Was the article interesting? Why or why not?
- What was the introductory sentence or thesis statement?
- Could the introductory paragraph be improved? How?
- Does paragraph development follow the logical theme or topic of the paper?
- What was the concluding sentence?
- Could the conclusion be improved? How?
- What sources were used to complete the research?
- Was the topic thoroughly researched?
- What other sources could have been located for research?
- Where could a student obtain these sources of information?
- How would a student locate additional sources of information?
Hopefully the discussions will stimulate members to enter the Junior Historian writing contest.
Activity 14. Local History Publications. As students collect records, research their projects, and gather information on the history of their community, they will find information of interest to others, particularly on their own region. To make the findings better known and to gain local support, the students should be encouraged to write up their research and activities in essay form. The best of these essays may then be published in magazine form. Students find it exciting to have their names and works in print. A number of chapters have published their own magazine. (SEE the How-To Section for, Chapter Fund Raising Projects.)
Activity 15. Researching Local Economic history. Whether your community is urban or rural, it has an economic history. There is no better approach to studying economics, or put more cogently, how we live, then to examine the economic decisions that shaped our own lives.
- Why did Dexter die and Gainesville prosper? They are only 12 miles apart?
- The man who opened the first filling station in your town may very well be still living. Why did he change, "filling station" to "service station", and then to "car care center?"
- Why did the bank in your community not fail (or fail) during the Great Depression? The banker or bank employees may still be living. Ask them.
See the Resource Section for Guidelines to Historical Research.
Activity 16. Presenting a School Assembly Programs for Patriotic Holidays or Anniversaries. Researching, writing, and presenting a school assembly program for patriotic holidays or anniversaries is an excellent way to get publicity for your chapter and their activities.
Some of the more important holidays are: Martin Luther King Jr.’s Birthday 3 rd Monday in January President’s Day 3 rd Monday in February STAR (State of Texas Anniversary Remembrance) Day Febraury 19 Texas Independence Day March 2 Sam Houston's Birthday March 2 San Jacinto Day April 21 Lyndon Baines Johnson Day August 27 Patriots’ Day September 11 National Anthem Day September 14 Citizenship or Constitution Day September 17 Columbus Day October 12 Stephen F. Austin's Birthday November 3 Veterans Day November 11 Special recognition weeks or months: Celebrate Freedom Week* Week in which November 11 appears Texas History Month* March Women’s History Month March African-American History Month February Hispanic Heritage Month September 15-October 15 Native American Heritage Month November
*Note: Celebrate Freedom Week and Texas History Month are mandated by public laws HB 1776 and HB 294, respectively. Alternate dates are possible for Freedom Week.
Activity 17. Researching and Writing Your School's History. Assuming that your school is not "shiny new," embark on a project to research and write its history. Research school records, old newspapers from the school and community, and (especially) the memories of past administrators, teachers and alumni. See the Resource Section for Guidelines to Historical Research.
Activity 18. Maintaining a Junior Historian Showcase or Bulletin Board. A Junior Historian Showcase or Bulletin board is an excellent way to call attention to both your club program and to the history of your community.
Activity 19. Creating an Interpretive Website. Using technology to share the history of one’s school, a community landmark or local event is a wonderful way to share an individual or chapter’s research with a broader audience. Members can research and visually document historic locations in their community and post that information online. This is a skill which many students already possess and is easy to learn. Some students have incorporated Geographic Information System technology to create interactive maps of historic sites in their communities such as historic buildings, schools, or historic markers. Chapters are encouraged to create websites to highlight their own chapter or school’s history. Creating such sites can be both fun and informative.
Note: Be sure to follow all local policies regarding student Internet access and student work/photo posting. Also, be sure to follow all copyright laws with regard to images used that were not taken by students or sponsors. Instruct the students on the value of such intellectual property. In addition, be sure you have a use of photo release on file for each member who may appear in photos you post online or send to TSHA for online or print publication. This form can be included in initial membership forms filled out at the beginning of the year. A sample photo release is available in the Resource Section.
Activity 20. Participation in the Texas History Quiz. The Texas State Historical Association sponsors periodic Texas History Quizzes students may enter. Answers to these quizzes are found in the Handbook of Texas Online. These quizzes make wonderful ways for students to learn to use the Handbook, while earning a chance to win prizes.
The school-community cooperative projects developed within the Junior Historian chapter framework yield multiple benefits. For example, the community, through a museum, the local historical society, the County Historical Commission, and the civic and cultural organizations benefit from the organized effort of the chapter members and their teacher-sponsors. The chapter members benefit, from the experience, responsibility, and community recognition accorded them by their adult colleagues in the community. Together, through cooperative effort, the school, the community, the chapter members, and history, all benefit through a well-planned meshing of goals, activities, and effort. Cooperation is indeed the "name of the game."
Activity 21. Field Trips to Destinations of Historic Significance. Educational study trips into the community and beyond are an excellent way to motivate and keep students engaged. A well planned educational trip can be both a learning and personally memorable experience. Students learn best when they get to experience the history of an event with all of their senses. The ability to discuss the way in which the Battle of San Jacinto unfolded while walking the battlefield is as difficult an experience to match as discussing mission life while standing in the cramped quarters of Mission San Jose. Field trips show students that learning history firsthand is not only an academic activity but one that provides the opportunity for social enjoyment. To plan an effective trip use the Study Trip Checklist found in the Resource Section. Engaging students in the planning process helps build leadership, problem-solving, and decision-making skills.
Activity 22. Project: Community Service. Community service is the one area in which chapter members help weld a meaningful bond between the school and the community. After school, on weekends, during the summer, and on holidays, chapter members aid the local museum, the historical society, and the County Historical Commission in many ways: students serve as guides and museum aides, work at sales counters, dust and sweep, catalogue artifacts, type index cards, address envelopes, and help prepare and deliver newsletters. At local meetings they present programs, serve as hosts and hostesses, and register guests, In the community they also do research that requires special "leg-work," survey historic buildings, conduct historic tours, and help raise money to preserve historic sites. In this specific area, student potential is virtually unlimited. See the Resource Section for sample letters for making contact and the Texas Historical Commission at http://www.thc.state.tx.us/links/lkdefault.html for helpful links.
Activity 23. The History Fair or National History Day Program. The National History Day program provides Junior Historians with the option of participating in a national program that encourages young people to explore a historical subject related to an annual theme. Junior Historians in grades 6-12 may, if they chose to follow the national guidelines, enter one of the more than twenty regional history fairs held across Texas in February and March. Students who win a first or second place at one of the regional fairs advance to Texas History Day, which is held in late April. The first and second place winners at Texas History Day are then eligible to compete at the national contest which is held at the University of Maryland in mid-June. A fair for other types of historical entries or some sort of historical showcase of classroom products could also be conducted. However, the National History Day program has a proven structure, resources, high academic focus, and the motivational factor of academic competition and awards that should be considered when planning the direction of such an event.
Many chapters are instrumental in organizing the school level fair as part of this program. Chapter members can assist with key logistical tasks that need to be done to insure a successful fair including: processing entry information, scheduling, room set up, directional assistance, messengers, and promotion. Participation in National History Day could also be considered for recognition within the chapter as a motivational tool.
Activity 24. Adopt-a-Building Program. Chapters are encouraged to participate in the Adopt-a-Building Program described in the Awards and Recognition Section. The research conducted for this program is valuable in learning the location of a wide variety of documents and resources in the local community. In some cases the research has been the beginning basis of research to obtain an Official Historical Marker from the Texas Historical Commission discussed in the Official Marker Guidelines found in the Resource Section. This is best accomplished when working with the local heritage society or County Historical Commission. For a similar activity to so serve as a starting point, see the Save Our History Educator’s Manual in the Resource Section.
Activity 25. The Folk Fair. The folk fair focuses on the culture, customs, food, dress, and products of various nationality groups represented in the community. The folk fair usually includes exhibits showing the contributions of these various ethnic and national groups--food, clothing, artifacts, folk music, folk dances, and pictures of individuals representative of each group, with biographical sketches of each. This activity offers unlimited opportunities for community cooperation.
Activity 26. Produce Historical Tour Guidebooks. In some chapters the members have researched, designed, illustrated, and written local historical guide books. In most cases this was done in cooperation with the local chamber of commerce, historical society, and the museum, which provided the funding. However, some chapters have undertaken this as a fund raising project. Printing costs and potential sales should be carefully considered before students attempt to fund these projects alone. Consider coordinating your efforts with your local Main Street Program if your community is involved. For a listing of cities involved in the program contact the Texas Historical Commission. For a similar activity to serve as a starting point, see the Save Our History Educator’s Manual in the Resource Section.
Activity 27. Building Historical Exhibit Units. Designing and building historical display units is a self-motivating activity, requiring a wide range of skills and involving a maximum number of students. Display units containing models, dioramas, artifact collections, photographs, sketches, and other objects may be exhibited in schools, public libraries, local museums, courthouses, post offices, banks, or in store windows. These historical exhibit units usually form the core of the history fair and folk fair exhibits. (SEE the How-To Section for, Preparing Historical Exhibits.)
Activity 28. Junior Historian Radio-Television Programs. A number of chapters have been provided time on local radio and television stations to present programs on community history. This is a public service that demonstrates the chapter's contribution to the area's cultural life, while sharpening the community's awareness of its heritage. Chapters have also made use of in-school public address and video systems to make similar public service announcements.
Activity 29. Producing Historical Pamphlets. A wide range of topics are appropriate for a series of pamphlets: a general history of the community, early settlers, local industry, business institutions, transportation, agriculture, ranching, newspapers, schools, churches, and general points of historical interest. Local business firms frequently sponsor chapter-produced history awareness promotional projects in return for advertising space. (One chapter received a regular stipend from a bank for a series of illustrated ads on local history.) Much of this research can be developed either in the history class or in preparation for a writing contest paper. (SEE the How-To Section for, A Student's Guide to Historical Research and Writing.) Some chapters produce their own pamphlets in cooperation with the school/district print shop.
Activity 30. Newspaper Articles and Chapter Columns. Junior Historian chapters have arranged with a local newspaper to publish a series of student-written articles on local history. Many were writing contest papers and some had appeared in the Texas Historian. The benefits from this activity are multiple. The articles stimulate wide interest in community history, and letters to the newspaper frequently suggest additional topics with offers of information and photographs. As a result, the chapters received many rare photographs that shed new light on the community's early history. The newspaper also benefits from increased readership generated by the students' literary efforts.
Activity 31. Student-Produced Videos. Student-produced videos dramatizing some aspect of local history provide an opportunity to involve many students in a project that requires a wide variety of skills and talents (research, writing, acting, directing, lighting, props, costumes, makeup, photography, video editing, etc.). With this activity the students can view tangible results of their efforts, which may also be shared with the community by exhibiting their presentations to service clubs, historical societies, museums, and educational groups. Collections of recorded oral histories also work well as source material for such projects. Videos can be reproduced at relatively low cost and distributed to increase historical awareness. The ability to tell a story visually is a motivating factor, as is the desire of young people to work with the cameras and software.
Activity 32. Conservation Projects. Relations between the school and the community are strengthened when chapter members help organize and participate in community restoration, beautification, and conservation projects. For a similar activity to serve as a starting point, see the Save Our History Educator’s Manual in the Resource Section.
Activity 33. Save Our History Grants and Awards The Save our History program, sponsored by the History Channel, offers grants and recognition awards for preservation projects completed through partnerships with local preservation groups. The grants are open to teachers who make use of the Save Our History Educator’s Manual found in the Resource Section and who partner with a preservation organization. The TSHA is willing to serve as that partner with you if there is none locally. Awards are available to recognize outstanding preservation projects and do not require you to have received a grant or have partner. Many of the activities in the Activities Section qualify for these grants and awards. For more information about these opportunities, see the Educator’s Manual in the Resource Section or visit http://www.history.com/shows/classroom/articles/save-our-history.
OTHER ACTIVITIES, CONTESTS, AND AWARD
Many organizations offer activities, contests, and awards which are history oriented and in which chapters or members might want to participate. See the list and contact information below:
Texas Quiz Show -Sponsored by TSHA offers an exciting game show formatted experience for middle school students. This multi-level contest based on the Handbook of Texas online and the Texas Almanac allows students to display their knowledge of all things Texan. For more information see http://www.TexasQuizShow.com.
DRT Texas History Essay Contest-Sponsored by the Daughters of the Republic of Texas organization which offers modest cash prizes to 4th and 7th grade students for winning entries in their essay contest on an annually changing topic. For more information see http://www.drtinfo.org/education/essay-contests/rules.
SRT Texas History Essay Contest-Sponsored by the Sons of the Republic of Texas organization which offers sizable scholarships to high school seniors for winning entries in their essay contest on an annually changing topic. For more information see http://www.srttexas.org/essay.html.
Friends of the Governor's Mansion Presentation Contest-Sponsored by the Friends of the Governor's Mansion organization which offers awards for winning PowerPoint presentation entries on local history by high school students. For more information see http://www.txfgmcontest.org/fotgm/index.asp.
Veterans History Project-Sponsored by the Library of Congress is an effort to capture and preserve the story of America’s veterans. Students conduct and process oral history interviews prior to submitting them to the Library of Congress for permanent archival preservation. This ties in well with Activity #6. Detailed instructions are provided at http://www.loc.gov/folklife/vets/.
Project Citizen-Sponsored in Texas by Law Focused Education, Incorporated and the State Bar of Texas encourages students to research and prepare action plans for public policy issues. The possible connections between historic roots of social problems, preservation of historic places, and public policy decisions is endless. For more information see http://www.texaslre.org/so_pcs-show.html.
Patriot’s Pen Writing Contest-Sponsored by the Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) offers monetary recognition for outstanding writing on an annual changing theme. The entry deadline is in mid-fall. For more information contact your local VFW post or see http://www.vfw.org/.
Barbara Jordan Essay Contest-Sponsored by the University of Texas offers monetary awards for outstanding writing on a variety of issues. This essay contest is open to high school students statewide and has a spring deadline. For more information see http://www.utexas.edu/world/barbarajordan/.
Hatton W. Sumners Editorial Contest-Sponsored by the Hatton W. Sumners Foundation and Law Focused Education, Inc. offers scholarships for outstanding editorials written by tenth through twelfth graders. For more information see http://www.texaslre.org/so_editorial.html.
Texas History Day T-Shirt Design Contest-Use your creative skills to create a design to be used on this years Texas History Day t-shirt. Monetary prizes are awarded in addition to the artistic recognition. See the Texas History Day website for additional information.
Adopt-a-Highway Program. The Texas Department of Highways and Public Transportation and the Keep Texas Beautiful Council jointly sponsor the "Adopt-a-Highway" program. This program along with the highly successful "Don't Mess With Texas" campaign aim to attract the public's attention to the epidemic level of littering along Texas highways.
Junior Historians can help in litter prevention and cleanup by participating in the Adopt-a-Highway program. Groups agree to clean up a one or two mile stretch of roadway near their community. The adopting organization has the following responsibilities to: 1) develop a functional plan that will influence and encourage the public to improve the appearance of their adopted highway; 2) plan for a general cleanup at least twice a year; 3) assist the Highway Department in securing media coverage for the program; and 4) coordinate with Department's maintenance foreman and project coordinator to carry out the plan.
The Highway Department in return will: 1) furnish and erect two highway signs indicating the section of highway under adoption and the organization responsible; 2) furnish manpower and equipment necessary to aid with general clean ups; 3) conduct media coverage to inform the public of the program; and 4) provide assistance from a maintenance foreman and project coordinator in carrying out the overall plan. The Highway Department will also provide safety vests to all volunteers and post traffic control signs during cleanups. Chapters interested in participating in the program should visit http://www.dontmesswithtexas.org/adopt.php for more information.
As an organization of historians, it is incumbent on each chapter to maintain a permanent record of its activities. The chapter history should be updated annually and contain a detailed record of every phase of chapter activity. Key entries are as follows:
- Names of sponsors, cosponsors, chapter officers, and members
- Chapter constitution
- Minutes of meetings
- Listing of projects, programs, and activities
- Copies of printed programs in which the chapter participated
- Listing of field trips
- Secretary's correspondence files
- Newspaper clippings reporting chapter activities (dated, with paper's name)
- Chapter related photographs (dated with persons, places, and events identified)
- Copies of printed and duplicated chapter materials
- Oral history tapes, each with proper identification
- Publications in which sponsors' and chapter members' articles have appeared
- Treasurer's annual report
- All other materials that help document the chapter's history
Keeping the chapters' history is primarily the responsibility of the chapter historian, with the help of the chapter photographer. The historian should also apprise the chapter members of the importance of maintaining the organization's permanent history and solicit their help.
SPONSORS OF JUNIOR HISTORIAN CHAPTERS should be acutely aware of the importance of maintaining the chapter's history, as the annual CHAPTER ACHIEVEMENT AWARDS are based on this data, often presented in scrapbook form. (SEE the Awards and Recognition Section for information on Chapter Achievement Awards.)
Careful consideration should be given to the permanent maintenance of the chapter files. Many chapters use the annual scrapbook format, while others use an organized filing system, carefully dating each item. As new chapter officials are elected each fall, new files are set up to correspond with the new administration.
Permanent filing systems should be used whenever possible. Standard file cabinets, or manuscript boxes constructed of durable cardboard, are preferable. Consult your school librarian on which Junior Historian records, projects, or research can or should become part of the school’s archival holdings.
Whatever method is employed, it is important that a permanent record of each chapter's activities be maintained.
Regional meetings are usually held on a Saturday and are usually held in the fall. At that time all Junior Historian chapters in a given geographic area convene and participate in a program that might consist of a talk by an area historian, skits or plays by chapters, chapter reports, and tours of historical sites such as museums, homes, and/or battlefields. Regional meetings have been held in Jefferson, Winedale, Washington-on-the-Brazos, Galveston, the San Jacinto Monument, the George's Ranch at Rosenberg, and the East Texas Oil Museum.
Area sponsors are encouraged to consider organizing regional meetings as a way to connect with other chapters and to increase awareness. The TSHA educational services staff are willing to assist area sponsors with the organization of such meetings. See the Resource Section for sample meeting announcements and registration forms.
THE ANNUAL MEETING
The Annual Meeting marks the high point of the year's activities, as chapter members, along with their sponsors and co-sponsors, assemble to share ideas, problems, and achievements, while enjoying the good fellowship of friends and colleagues. Although the meeting's primary goals are professional growth and intellectual stimulation, the participants' social and recreational needs are given careful consideration. The annual meetings are events that are looked forward to with much anticipation. Overnight travel may be an issue for some schools, particularly in the elementary division; therefore the bulk of the activities will take place on Saturday. Chapters with these limitations are strongly encouraged to attend both day’s events when the meeting occurs near them.
The Junior Historians of Texas
The Junior Historian Annual Meeting is usually held in late March or early April. The exact date of the meeting depends on the occurrence of Easter and Spring Breaks. Annual meetings have been held in Austin, San Antonio, Arlington, Abilene, Mesquite, Fort Worth, Houston, and Galveston.
The Junior Historian Annual Meeting is always scheduled on a Friday and Saturday. A typical annual meeting schedule follows: Registration, begins on Friday at 3:00 p.m., concurrent with setting up of the History Fair exhibits. A tour or activity is usually scheduled as a means for chapters to interact and share their activities and accomplishments in a social setting. Judging of performances and documentaries may take place on Friday evening depending on the number of entries.
The Saturday events begin around 8:00 a.m. with late-registration and judging of non-exhibit entries. Exhibit entry judging will usually begin around 9:00. Activities or tours will often be scheduled while exhibit judging is occurring. Following lunch, the students and sponsors will convene in General Session for presentations by other chapters or guests and an Awards Ceremony. History Fair exhibits are removed immediately following the General Session.
Many chapters either arrive early on Friday or remain later on Saturday to tour museums or amusements found in the area where the meeting is being held. Examples of such include: Six Flags, Astroworld, Sea World, or a visit to a historical site such as San Antonio Missions National Historic Park, the Alamo, the Capitol, the Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum, San Jacinto State Historic Park, the Sixth Floor Museum, the Amon Carter Museum of Art, or the Fort Worth Stockyards.
The General Session is usually made up of two or three short presentations (chapter participation is solicited) and a short program focusing on some allied professional field: history, archeology, folklore, geography, and anthropology.
Awards in the competitive events are presented at the Awards Ceremony. The competitive activities—Research and Writing, History Fair, Adopt-a-Building participation, and Chapter Achievement--have wide student appeal and are major motivating forces in the Junior Historian chapter experience. A brief explanation of the five competitive events follows:
- The Writing Contest. After six decades of activity, the writing contest papers represent the Junior Historians' most permanent contribution to history and learning. Much of the state's history--largely the record of local people, places, and events--has been preserved through the research and writing of the Junior Historians. Their efforts have not gone unrewarded. Each year almost $1,500 in writing prizes are presented to Texas' outstanding student authors at the Annual Meeting. Junior and senior high students compete separately and the various writing prizes are listed annually in the Texas Historian. Many of the contest papers, both winners and non-winners, are published in the Texas Historian, the official publication of the Junior Historians of Texas.
- The History Fair, with its variety of entry possibilities, has become one of the Annual Meeting highlights. These interpretive displays of local historical topics give an important dimension to the Junior Historian chapter experience. Each junior and senior high school student entering the history fair competition receives a certificate of participation, while the students making the top three awards receive medallions. Trophies are awarded to the Junior Historian chapter that creates the best chapter projects each academic year.
- Adopt-a-Building Preservation Program. This exciting preservation education program enables Junior Historian chapters to academically adopt a building or other landmark of historical significance in their communities. Through media presentations, displays, and outreach programs, chapters spend an academic year uncovering information about their site's architectural and social history. Those chapters completing the four phases of the program are recognized at the Annual Meeting with a plaque commemorating their accomplishments. Often times the best Adopt-a-Building media presentations are also presented at the Annual Meeting during the General Session on Saturday.
- Chapter Achievement Awards. The climax of the Annual Meeting is the presentation of the Chapter Achievement Awards. These awards, recognizing group achievement in each division, are the most coveted of all Junior Historian honors. Selections are based on information contained in the chapter sponsor's Annual Reports. Special awards are also given to the outstanding first year junior and senior high school chapters.
For an Annual Meeting Planning Guide, see the How-To Section.