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Cross References

 The Handbook of Texas Online now uses links for cross-referenced articles in place of the symbols qv and qqv and will continue to add more links in the future. For a thorough explanation of the use of the cross reference symbols qv and qqv as employed in the six-volume New Handbook of Texas see below:


The Use of qv and qqv in the New Handbook of Texas (1996 edition)

The text of the New Handbook of Texas employs two types of cross-reference, the symbol qv and the see or see also reference. (1) The symbol qv denotes Latin quod vide, "which see." The plural of qv is written qqv. A qv is printed beside a noun phrase that is the subject of an article in the New Handbook; qqv means that each item in the preceding series is represented by an article. Occasionally the noun phrase so marked is not the exact equivalent of the title, though the qv should lead the reader unambiguously to the intended article. Several categories of article are not regularly cross-referenced--counties and rivers, for instance. When the qv appears with such a topic, it signifies that important information about the subject at hand may be found in the referenced article, not merely that the article exists. The editors have not tried to insert all possible cross- references, since to do so would have added clutter to an already packed book. Nevertheless, they have employed the qv somewhat more broadly than did the editors of the earlier Handbook and the Supplement. In particular, whereas the earlier edition did not cross-reference major topics such as Stephen F. Austin and the battle of San Jacinto, the editors of the New Handbook have thought it wise to do so. Texas has grown much less insular during the last twenty (not to say forty) years than it once was, and many more residents come from other states or foreign countries. What would have been an obvious topic to the born Texan of twenty years ago might not be such to some newer residents. Further, in order that the New Handbook can be the best possible reference tool for young students as well as more seasoned readers, the editors have taken less for granted and adopted more explicit cross-referencing.

Be that as it may, article titles in certain categories are not regularly followed by qv. This is especially the case for categories in which all available topics are the subjects of articles: as the New Handbook contains an article on every Texas county, for instance, no qv is needed after a county name. Rivers and missions, for other examples, are rarely cross-referenced, since every Texas river or mission is treated in a separate article. (San Juan Bautista is a notable separate case, however, since this frequently mentioned mission was in Mexico, not Texas.) Following is a list of topic categories that generally get no qv:

  • counties
  • towns and cities
  • rivers and streams (see inclusion criteria for creeks below)
  • minor physical features
  • railroads
  • government positions
  • fields of endeavor
  • institutions of higher learning
  • Indian group or tribal names
  • forts
  • missions
  • presidios

Usually, qv is inserted at the first mention of a subject. Sometimes, however, it is employed at a subsequent mention. The word buffalo, for instance, is not cross-referenced at its first occurrence in the article on Lee County, where it is a mere item in a list of county wildlife species. The cross-reference occurs at its next mention, where reference to the article BUFFALO (and from there to other related articles) can illuminate the hunting activities of the Tonkawa Indians. Though the editors have tried to eliminate ambiguity in qv references, sometimes it has been unavoidable. Congress of the Republic of Texas,qv for instance, is ambiguous since both the Congress and the Republic of Texas are the subjects of articles.