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NECHE INDIANS

NECHE INDIANS. The Neche (Nacha, Naesha, Nascha, Nesta, Nouista) Indians, one of the Caddoan-speaking tribes of the Hasinai confederation, lived along the Neches River in the area of present Cherokee and Houston counties during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The Neches River received its name from this tribe. The San Francisco de los Neches Mission and its associated presidio were established near the Neche group in 1716. The mission was abandoned in 1719, reestablished in 1721, and finally removed from the region in 1730. One of the major Hasinai fire temples was near the Neche area, and there was also a lesser fire temple in the principal Neche settlement. In the nineteenth century the Neches lost their ethnic identity among the surviving remnants of Hasinai tribes, who in 1855 were placed on the Brazos Indian Reservation in present Young County. In 1859 all the Indians of this reservation were removed to Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. Although it has been suggested that the Nechauis were a more southerly group of Neche Indians, this has yet to be proved.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

Herbert E. Bolton, "The Native Tribes about the East Texas Missions," Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association 11 (April 1908). William Joyce Griffith, The Hasinai Indians of East Texas as Seen by Europeans, 1687–1772 (New Orleans: Tulane University, 1954). Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). John R. Swanton, Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo Indians (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 132, Washington: GPO, 1942).

Thomas N. Campbell

Citation

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Thomas N. Campbell, "NECHE INDIANS," Handbook of Texas Online (http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmn20), accessed December 22, 2014. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.