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PAMPOPA INDIANS

PAMPOPA INDIANS. The Pampopa (Apompia, Pampoca, Pamposa, Panpoa, and other variants) Indians are known mainly from the first half of the eighteenth century, during which time they were frequently reported in rancherías on the Medina, Frio, and Nueces rivers west, southwest, and south of the site of present San Antonio. This would place their range in the area now covered by Bexar, Medina, Frio, Atascosa, La Salle, and McMullen counties. In 1727 500 Pampopa Indians were said to be on the Nueces River, apparently on the great southward bend of that river in La Salle and McMullen counties. Some Pampopas entered San Juan Bautista Mission, near present Guerrero, Coahuila, in 1701 and were reported still there as late as 1762. A few Pampopa individuals seem also to have been at nearby San Bernardo Mission in 1747. Relatively large numbers of Pampopas entered the San Antonio missions, a few went to San Antonio de Valero Mission but most of them (at least 200) went to San José y San Miguel de Aguayo in the early 1720s. During the 1730s the Pampopas sometimes deserted San José Mission to return to their traditional range. Some Pampopa Indians were still living at San José as late as 1793. It is evident that they eventually lost their identity in the mission Indian populations of northeastern Coahuila and southern Texas. The linguistic evidence clearly indicates that the Pampopas spoke a Coahuiltecan dialect.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

Peter P. Forrestal, trans., The Solís Diary of 1767, ed. Paul J. Foik (Preliminary Studies of the Texas Catholic Historical Society 1.6 [March 1931]). Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). P. Otto Maas, ed., Viajes de Misioneros Franciscanos a la conquista del Nuevo México (Seville: Imprenta de San Antonio, 1915). J. R. Swanton, Linguistic Material from the Tribes of Southern Texas and Northeastern Mexico (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1940). Gabriel Tous, trans., The Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre Expedition of 1709, Preliminary Studies of the Texas Catholic Historical Society 1.3 (March 1930). Robert S. Weddle, San Juan Bautista: Gateway to Spanish Texas (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1968).

Thomas N. Campbell

Citation

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Thomas N. Campbell, "PAMPOPA INDIANS," Handbook of Texas Online (http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmp24), accessed December 20, 2014. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.