Members Only Area
Bookmark and Share


TOHAHA INDIANS. The Tohaha (Teao, Thoaga, Toaa, Toaha, Toao, Tooja, Tohahe, Tohaka, Tuxaha) Indians are not to be confused with the Toho Indians, although they both lived in the same area and were closely associated. Both are generally considered to be Tonkawan groups, but this has never been satisfactorily demonstrated. In the late eighteenth century the Tohahas were most frequently encountered by Europeans on the lower Guadalupe and Colorado rivers (but not near the coast), where they often shared the same settlements with other groups, particularly Cantonas, Cavas, Emets, and Sanas. They were never reported in missions, at least under this name or its variants. Some modern writers have equated the Toyal Indians with the Tohahas. The Tohahas and Toaas have been treated as separate groups, but there is no basis for this separate treatment. The literature makes it clear that these are variant names for the same people.


Herbert Eugene Bolton, ed., Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, 1542–1706 (New York: Scribner, 1908; rpt., New York: Barnes and Noble, 1959). Charles W. Hackett, ed., Historical Documents Relating to New Mexico, Nueva Vizcaya, and Approaches Thereto, to 1773 (3 vols., Washington: Carnegie Institution, 1923–37). Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). Pierre Margry, ed., Découvertes et établissements des Français dans l'ouest et dans le sud de l'Amérique septentrionale, 1614–1754 (6 vols., Paris: Jouast, 1876–86). John R. Swanton, Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo Indians (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 132, Washington: GPO, 1942).

Thomas N. Campbell


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Thomas N. Campbell, "TOHAHA INDIANS," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed January 28, 2015. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.