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TOHO INDIANS. The Toho (Thoo, Tohan, Tohau, Tojo, Tokau, Too, Tou, Toxo, Tuu) Indians are not to be confused with the Tohahas, although both lived in the same area and were often closely associated. It is generally thought that both were Tonkawan groups, but this cannot be proved conclusively. In the late seventeenth century the Tohos and Tohahas were most frequently encountered by the Spanish along the lower Guadalupe and Colorado rivers (but not on the coast), where they shared villages with other groups, particularly the Cantonas, Cavas, Emets, and Sanas. In 1740 some of the Tohos entered San Antonio de Valero Mission at San Antonio and were reported there as late as 1765. Attempts to link the Toho with the Atayos of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca are not very convincing because over 150 years separate the initial records of the two groups. Identification of Tohos with the Tohaus (Tohans, Tokaus) of the La Salle expedition records is generally accepted and is supported by the fact that both Tohau and Tohaha appear on the same list of localized groups. Herbert E. Bolton once called attention to the similarity of certain variants of Toho, particularly Tuu and Tou, to Tup and Top, two group names that have never been satisfactorily explained. Bolton's suggestion deserves serious attention and should be tested. Tojo [Toho] and Too have been listed as separate groups, but the literature shows that these are variants of the same name.


Herbert Eugene Bolton, ed., Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, 1542–1706 (New York: Scribner, 1908; rpt., New York: Barnes and Noble, 1959). Herbert Eugene Bolton, Texas in the Middle Eighteenth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1915; rpt., Austin: University of Texas Press, 1970). Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). Pierre Margry, ed., Découvertes et établissements des Français dans l'ouest et dans le sud de l'Amérique septentrionale, 1614–1754 (6 vols., Paris: Jouast, 1876–86).

Thomas N. Campbell


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Thomas N. Campbell, "TOHO INDIANS," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed December 22, 2014. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.