RAMIREZ Y SESMA, JOAQUIN
RAMÍREZ Y SESMA, JOAQUÍN (?–?). Joaquín Ramírez y Sesma, Mexican general, commanded the brigade sent in advance of the main body of Antonio López de Santa Anna's troops. His orders were to relieve Gen. Martín Perfecto de Cos in San Antonio, but news of Cos's surrender (December 1835) and retreat to Laredo reached Mexico shortly after Ramírez's departure. Ramírez joined Cos at Laredo with 1,000 infantry and 500 cavalry. Santa Anna overtook them at the Rio Grande, and the troops advanced to San Antonio, where they seized the Alamo on March 6, 1836. On March 11, 1836, Ramírez was ordered to go with Gen. Adrián Woll to San Felipe de Austin and then to Anahuac by way of Harrisburg. On March 24 his orders were changed, and he was instructed to sustain the left wing of José de Urrea's forces, but the resistance encountered at Beeson's Ford on the Colorado caused Ramírez and Woll to camp on the south bank of the river about two miles from the Texas forces on the opposite side. On April 7 Santa Anna changed Ramírez's orders again, instructing him to cross the Colorado near Bastrop and continue to San Felipe de Austin. Santa Anna then proceeded with an advance detachment, and Ramírez followed at a distance of approximately twenty leagues. He began crossing his troops over the Brazos at Thompson's Ferry on April 13 with orders to continue toward Harrisburg. At the time of the battle of San Jacinto Ramírez was encamped on the right bank of the Brazos near the Old Fort settlement in what is now Fort Bend County. He joined Vicente Filisola and the other Mexican generals on April 25 and accompanied the troops in the general Mexican retreat.
Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of the North Mexican States and Texas (2 vols., San Francisco: History Company, 1886, 1889). Stephen L. Hardin, Texian Iliad: A Military History of the Texas Revolution (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994). Jeff Long, Duel of Eagles: The Mexican and U.S. Fight for the Alamo (New York: Morrow, 1990). Antonio López de Santa Anna et al., The Mexican Side of the Texan Revolution, trans. Carlos E. Castañeda (Dallas: Turner, 1928; 2d ed., Austin: Graphic Ideas, 1970). Dudley Goodall Wooten, ed., A Comprehensive History of Texas (2 vols., Dallas: Scarff, 1898; rpt., Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1986).
The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article."RAMIREZ Y SESMA, JOAQUIN," Handbook of Texas Online (http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fra22), accessed December 13, 2013. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.