HIJOS DE TEXAS
HIJOS DE TEXAS. Hijos de Texas (Sons of Texas) was founded in 1922 by Feliciano G. Flores as a splinter group from Hijos de America. The new organization obtained its charter in June 1922 and stressed the "intellectual, economic, and social betterment of American citizens of Mexican descent." Meetings were held in a building on El Paso Street, in the heart of the San Antonio barrio. The leadership included Flores, a policeman, attorney Alonso Perales, and Abundio Treviño, who worked at the Alamo Iron Works. Members, mainly from the lower middle class, included a number of World War I veterans. Membership ranged between fifty and 100. The Hijos de Texas provided legal aid for members who encountered discrimination and worked for equal rights in general. In 1924 the group formally protested to the Bexar County school superintendent against segregated schools. The same year it sent a commission to Devine, Texas, to investigate the discriminatory practices of a restaurant owner. The organization worked with the Mexican consul for the benefit of the community and raised money for local charities. With a women's mutualista (see SOCIEDADES MUTUALISTAS) it cosponsored several celebrations to raise money for Christmas gifts for Hispanic children. The splintering of the Hijos de America continued when Perales founded the League of Latin American Citizens in 1927. On February 17, 1929, twenty-five leaders of the various groups, concerned about the dilution of political effectiveness, held a unity conference in Corpus Christi, with 150 observers from all over South Texas, and established the League of United Latin American Citizens, which replaced the Hijos and other organizations.
Rodolfo Acuña, Occupied America: A History of Chicanos (2d ed., New York: Harper and Row, 1981). Mario T. Garcia, Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology, and Identity, 1930–1960 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989). Cynthia E. Orozco, The Origins of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) and the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement in Texas with an Analysis of Women's Political Participation in a Gendered Context, 1910–1929 (Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1992). Julie Leininger Pycior, La Raza Organizes: Mexican American Life in San Antonio, 1915–1930, as Reflected in Mutualista Activities (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Notre Dame, 1979).
The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.Julie Leininger Pycior, "HIJOS DE TEXAS," Handbook of Texas Online (http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/pqhjp), accessed June 19, 2013. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.