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TWENTY-SECOND TEXAS CAVALRY

TWENTY-SECOND TEXAS CAVALRY. In late 1861 and early 1862, the Twenty-second Texas organized under Col. Robert H. Taylor. The soldiers enlisted from Fannin, Grayson, Collin, and nearby North Texas counties. Their views on the war varied since some had opposed secession. In early 1862 the regiment moved into the Indian Territory and in July formed a cavalry brigade, with the Thirty-first Texas and the Thirty-fourth Texas, under Col. D. H. Cooper. Col. James G. Stevens led the regiment in a successful engagement at Newtonia, Missouri, on September 30. After falling back into Arkansas, illness and changes in commanders led to confusion and orders converting the regiment to infantry, which further demoralized the men. Nevertheless, the Twenty-second Texas Dismounted Cavalry fought at Prairie Grove, Arkansas, on December 7. The regiment then moved to Fort Smith in January 1863 and marched through snow to the Red River in February.

In March the regiment and the brigade moved to Louisiana to join Gen. Richard Taylor. After retraining as infantry, the Twenty-second and two other regiments became a brigade in July under Gen. Camille de Polignac. Robert D. Stone received promotion to colonel of the regiment during the summer. By October the regiment and brigade had joined Taylor in southern Louisiana. In November the Twenty-second moved to the Mississippi River and then up to Alexandria in December.

In 1864 the regiment and the brigade skirmished with Federal forces at Vidalia in February and at Harrisonburg in March. The Twenty-second fell back with Taylor before the Union Red River campaign but helped turn back the Federal advance at Sabine Crossroads and Pleasant Hill on April 8 and 9. The regiment and brigade skirmished with the withdrawing Union Army and made an unsuccessful attack on May 18 at Yellow Bayou, where Stone was killed. In June Maj. George W. Merrick became commander of the Twenty-second. An effort to cross the Mississippi River in August failed, followed by a move to southern Arkansas in the fall and back to Louisiana in the winter. In March 1865 the Twenty-second returned to Texas where it disbanded in May.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

Alwyn Barr, Polignac's Texas Brigade, Texas Gulf Coast Historical Association Publication Series 8.1 (November 1964) (rpt., College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1998).

Citation

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

"TWENTY-SECOND TEXAS CAVALRY," Handbook of Texas Online (http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/qkt22), accessed July 22, 2014. Uploaded on April 4, 2011. Modified on April 11, 2011. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.