HIDALGO BLUFFS. Hidalgo Bluffs (Hidalgo Bluff), an early Brazos River landmark, is off Farm Road 1935 six miles upriver from what was once Washington-on-the-Brazos and three miles from William Penn in northeastern Washington County (at 30°20' N, 96°15' W). The escarpment appears abruptly over the Brazos River and separates the middle Brazos from its less-navigable upper reaches. These steep sandstone cliffs helped boats navigate the Brazos during the era of Antebellum Texas. Hidalgo, the settlement on top of the cliffs, had a river landing below Hidalgo Bluffs during the Republic of Texas era. Sandstone rock from the Hidalgo Bluffs extends across the Brazos River to form Hidalgo Falls, a hazard during the era of steamboat navigation. In the mid-1980s Hidalgo Bluffs was the site of Sommers Gin, the last operating gin in Washington County. Also at the site were three small cemeteries of early settlers.
Pamela A. Puryear and Nath Winfield, Jr., Sandbars and Sternwheelers: Steam Navigation on the Brazos (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1976). Judy and Nath Winfield, Jr., Cemetery Records of Washington County, 1826–1960 (MS, Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin, 1974).
The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article."HIDALGO BLUFFS," Handbook of Texas Online (http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/rjh35), accessed December 12, 2013. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.