Members Only Area
Bookmark and Share
Facebook
Twitter
LinkedIn

TSHA Style Guide

The following is an abbreviated style manual intended for use by contributors to the Southwestern Historical Quarterly and for authors submitting book manuscripts. We also suggest that potential authors refer to previous issues of the Quarterly and examine our books to get a sense of the format and style used. Authors should consult the Chicago Manual of Style for general information pertaining to grammar, style, usage, and much more. We usually defer to the Chicago Manual of Style in most matters. We now use the 16th edition, published in 2010. The manual  has an excellent Web site with up-to-date information. For spelling and hyphenation of words we follow Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.). 

The area we most differ from the Chicago Manual of Style is in how citations are noted.

NOTES

Documentation should be provided for every factual statement that is not of the most common knowledge. It is permissible for an author to group several citations to a paragraph in a single note at the end of that paragraph, but we ask that citations for two or more paragraphs not be grouped together in one note. In other words, each paragraph that needs documentation should have its own note. If the author chooses to use a single note for a paragraph, we ask that the sources for all quotations be made clear. When a reference covers several pages or several newspaper dates, for instance, the exact page or date from which the quotation is taken should be identified. Notes are numbered consecutively throughout the text by superscript numerals.

In citing archival material, cite in order of smallest grouping to largest, with the repository indicated in parentheses at the end. If a repository or collection is going to be referred to on subsequent references by an abbreviation, please list the selected abbreviation at the end of the note. For example: Ima Hogg Papers, cited hereafter as IHP; Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, cited hereafter as CAH.

Use roman type for "ibid." (which should be used only when referring to the entire previous note) and "et al." In subsequent references to a book or an article, use the author's last name and a shortened title, rather than "loc. cit." or "op. cit." Do not use "passim" or "ff." When citing an entire chapter from a book, use the inclusive page numbers rather than "Chapter 7." When assigning short titles to books for second citations, note that the order of words in the title should not be changed. Multiple citations within a single footnote should be separated by semicolons.

Discursive material in the notes should be limited; if something is important enough to discuss, include it in the text. "See also" references and general bibliographic discussion should be kept to a minimum. A citation should usually mention specific pages within a source that are directly relevant to the article. When a note combines citations with discursive material, the citation should follow the discussion. When a person's name appears for the first time in the discursive part of a note, the name should be cited in full whether or not the full name appears in the text of the article or the name has previously been used in full as part of a citation.

Keep in mind that the purpose of the notes is to enable other researchers to locate and make use of the sources you have cited. Sufficient detail is required in order to enable other people to find the same information.

Following are examples how certain types of materials are cited by the Texas State Historical Association.

 Books

basic citation:

Samuel P. Huntington, The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations (New York: Vintage Books, 1957), 261 (quotation), 262–264.

Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women of the Old South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988), 109–116.

shortened citation (all citations subsequent to the first full one):

Huntington, The Soldier and the State, 262.

Fox-Genovese, Within the Plantation Household, 109–112.

multivolume:

H. P. N. Gammel (comp.), The Laws of Texas, 1822–1897 (10 vols.; Austin: Gammel Book Co., 1898), I, 1094.

shortened citation (all citations subsequent to the first full one):

Gammel (comp.), The Laws of Texas, I, 1094.

edited volume:

Chester V. Kielman (ed.), The University of Texas Archives: A Guide to the Historical Manuscripts Collections in the University of Texas Library (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1967), 227.

shortened citation (all citations subsequent to the first full one):

Kielman (ed.), The University of Texas Archives, 227.

article in edited volume:

Robin F. Scott, "Wartime Labor Problems and Mexican-Americans in the War," in An Awakened Minority: The Mexican-Americans, ed. Manuel P. Servin (Beverly Hills: Glencoe Press, 1974), 134–142.

shortened citation (all citations subsequent to the first full one):

Scott, "Wartime Labor Problems and Mexican-Americans in the War," 134.

author, editor, and/or translator:

Jean Louis Berlandier, The Indians of Texas in 1830, ed. John C. Ewers, trans. Patricia Reading Leclercq (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1969), 2, 24, 105.

shortened citation (all citations subsequent to the first full one):

Berlandier, The Indians of Texas in 1830, 24.

reprint:

Raphael P. Thian (comp.), Notes Illustrating the Military Geography of the United States, 1813–1880(, ed. John M. Carroll (1881; reprint, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979), 58, 77, 89.

Mattie Austin Hatcher, The Opening of Texas to Foreign Settlement, 1801–1821 (Austin: University of Texas press, 1927; reprint, Philadelphia: Porcupine Press, 1976), 273–274.

shortened citation (all citations subsequent to the first full one):

Thian (comp.), Notes Illustrating the Military Geography of the United States, 77.

Hatcher, The Opening of Texas to Foreign Settlement, 273.

later or revised editions:

Clyde White, Administration of Public Welfare (2nd ed.; New York: American Book Co., 1950), 35–55.

Oscar Theodore Barek Jr., and Nelson Manfred Blake, Since 1900: A History of the United States in Our Times (rev. ed.; New York: Macmillan Co., 1952), 217, 223.

shortened citation (all citations subsequent to the first full one):

White, Administration of Public Welfare, 35–55.

Barek and Blake, Since 1900, 217.

part of series:

Julian H. Steward (ed.), Handbook of South American Indians, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology no. 143 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949), 216.

Arthur H. R. Fairchild, Shakespeare and the Arts of Design, University of Missouri Studies, vol. 12 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1937), 14, 183.

shortened citation (all citations subsequent to the first full one):

Steward (ed.), Handbook of South American Indians, 216.

Fairchild, Shakespeare and the Arts of Design, 183.

place and/or date of publication not given in book but found elsewhere:

Joseph M. Dawson, The Spiritual Conquest of the Southwest ([Nashville]: Sunday School Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, [1927]), 25, 98.

place and/or date of publication unknown:

Joseph Moore, Job: Patience, Cowardice, or Integrity? (n.p., n.d.), 413–419.

Jeremiah Smith, The Old Gentlemen with White Canes (Cody, Wyo.: [n.p.], 1941), 17, 25.

Jessica Olden, When Flowers Stopped Blooming (Lancaster, Tex.: Blake Printing Co., [n.d.]), 6.

Handbook of Texas (print editions):

Eugene C. Barker, "Stephen Fuller Austin," in Walter Prescott Webb and H. Bailey Carroll (eds.), The Handbook of Texas (2 vols,; Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1952, I, 81–84.

David G. McComb, "Houston, Texas," in Eldon Stephen Branda (ed.), The Handbook of Texas: A Supplement (Austin:Texas State Historical Association, 1976), 407–410.

Stephen L. Hardin, "Battle of the Alamo," in Ron Tyler, Douglas E. Barnett, Roy R. Barkley, Penelope C. Anderson, and Mark F. Odintz (eds.), The New Handbook of Texas (6 vols.; Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1996), I, 83–87.

Margaret Swett Henson, "Samuel May Williams," in Roy R. Barkley and Mark F. Odintz (eds.), The Portable Handbook of Texas (Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 2000), 971.

Second citation of an entry:

Barker, "Stephen Fuller Austin," 83.

Hardin, "Battle of the Alamo," 84–85.

Second reference to Handbook, but to a different entry:

Crystal Sasse Ragsdale, "Germans in Texas," in Branda (ed.), The Handbook of Texas Supplement, 335–336.

"George McKnight," in Tyler, et al. (eds.), The New Handbook of Texas, IV, 423.

Lewis L. Gould, "Lyndon Baines Johnson," in Barkley and Odintz (eds.), The Portable Handbook of Texas, 476-478.

Periodicals

Please note that Arabic numerals instead of Roman numerals are used for the volume numbers of journals regardless of the style in which the journal prints those numbers.

basic citation:

L. Tuffly Ellis, "Maritime Commerce on the Far Western Gulf, 1861–1865," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 77 (Oct.ober 1973): 167–226.

no publication month:

Jere Franco, "The Alabama-Coushatta and Their Texas Friends," East Texas Historical Journal 27, No. 1 (1989): 33, 36.

shortened citation:

Ellis, "Maritime Commerce on the Far Western Gulf," 172–173.

Newspapers

city appears in the masthead:

Austin American-Statesman, Mar. 22, June 4, 1927.

Houston Press, Mar. 10, 1930.

Dallas Morning News, May 12, 1954, sec. 1, p. 1.

city does not appear in the masthead:

Gazeta constitucional de Nuevo León (Monterrey), Jan. 14, Feb. 23, 1829.

Texas State Gazette (Austin), Nov. 15, 1856.

For references to newspapers published in sections, please include the name, number, or letter of the section as well as the page number. References to a specific article may also include the author's name and title of the article. See the Chicago Manual of Style, 15.236.

Archival material

Archival citations list the information from the specific to the general. The respository and its location should be the last thing in the citation.

typescript:

Harry Yandell Benedict, "History of the University of Texas" (3 vols.; typescript), I, 5, Harry Yandell Benedict Papers (Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin), cited hereafter as CAH.

second citation to the same collection:

Benedict, "History of the University of Texas" (3 vols.; typescript), I, 5, Benedict Papers.

clipping:

O. M. Roberts to Marble Falls Standard, June 27, 1896, photostat in Oran M. Roberts folder, Clippings File: Biographical (CAH).

letter:

James Magoffin to the Committee of El Paso County, Aug. 5, 1852, Governors' Papers: Peter H. Bell (Archives Division, Texas State Library, Austin).

later reference:

James Magoffin to the Committee of El Paso County, Aug. 5, 1852, Governors' Papers: Bell.

record groups:

John A. Williams to Political Chief at Nacogdoches, July 3, 1835, copy in Domestic Correspondence, Secretary of State Records, RG 307 (Archives Division, Texas State Library, Austin).

Second citation to the same record group:

W. B. Travis to S. F. Austin, Nov. 16, 1835, Provisional Government Letterbook, State Department Letterbook No. 3, pp. 75–76, RG 307.

If there are record groups with the same number at different archives and you are citing both, the name of the archive must be included in the subsequent citations as well as the record group number.

University of Texas and Texas A&M University records:

University of Texas Board of Regents Minutes, vol. F, July 10, 1923, p. 143, Archives of the Board of Regents (Ashbel Smith Hall, Austin).

University of Texas Board of Regents Minutes, vol. A, 65 (microfilm; Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin).

Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas Board of Directors Minutes, vol. 4, Nov. 26, 1924, p. 27 (Director's Office, Texas A&M University).

later reference:

Regents Minutes, vol. F, July 29, 1924, p. 287.

Directors Minutes, vol. 4, Jan. 7, 1925, p. 25.

Historical Files, Chancellor's Records (Archives, Texas A&M University Library).

County records:

Title Bond, William J. Bryan to William N. Hall, Aug. 22, 1866, Book H: pp.88–89, Brazos County Deed Records, Brazos County Courthouse, Bryan, Texas.

Second citation:

Title Bond, William J. Bryan to William N. Hall.

Congressional records

William H. Emory, Report on the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, 91, H. Exec. Doc. 135, 34th Cong., 1st Sess., 1856 (Serial 861).

Congressional Globe, 31st Cong., 1st Sess. (1850), 244–245.

Minutes of the Joint Boundary Commission, Feb. 15, 1850, S. Exec. Doc. 119, Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 32nd Cong., 1st Sess., 1852 (Serial 626), 65.

Public Law 88-352, July 2, 1964, United States Statutes at Large, 1964, 78 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1965), 241–245, 246 (quotation), 247–268.

second citation of House and Senate documents:

John Russell Bartlett to Lt. Amiel W. Whipple, Dec. 15, 1850, S. Exec. Doc. 119, 32nd Cong., 1st Sess., 32.

Public Law 88-352, United States Statutes at Large, 1964, 246–249, 252–253.

National Archives

"Military Records of Colonel George L. Andrews, 25th Infantry, U.S.A.," Adjutant General's Office, Record Group 94 (National Archives).

George L. Andrews to Adjutant General, U.S. Army, Sept. 20, 1873, Adjutant General's Office, Letterbook, vol. 16, p. 103, RG 94 (National Archives).

James D. Lucas to John M. Clayton, May 18, 1849. Despatches from United States Consuls in Ciudad Juárez (El Paso del Norte), 1850–1906, General Records of the Department of State, RG 59 (microfilm: National Archives).

If there are record groups with the same number at different archives and you are citing both, the name of the archive must be included in the second citation.

Census

U.S. Department of the Interior, Census Office, Report on the Social Statistics of Cities, comp. George E. Waring Jr., vols. 18 and 19 of the reports of the tenth census (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1886–1887), XIX, 305.

United States Seventh Census (1950), Matagorda County, Texas, Schedule 1 (Free Inhabitants), Record Group 29 (National Archives, Washington, D.C.). 

United States Tenth Census (1880), and United States Twelth Census (1900), Travis County, Texas, Population Schedules, City of Austin (microfilm; Austin-Travis County Collection, Austin Public Library; cited hereafter as ATCC).

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930. Unemployment (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1931), I, 952–953.

Dissertations and theses

David C. De Boe, "United States Policy at the Geneva Disarmament Conference, 1932–1934" (Ph.D. diss., Tulane University, 1969), 47.

Stephen Joseph Kraus, "Water, Sewers, and Streets: The Acquisition of Public Utilities in Austin, Texas, 1875–1930" (M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 1973), 16.

second citation:

De Boe, "United States Policy at the Geneva Disarmament Conference," 47.

Kraus, "Water, Sewers, and Streets," 16.

Interviews and correspondence

Emory Carlson to Debbie Cottrell, Oct. 20, 1987, interview (tapes in possession of the author).

Bruce Marshall to J. M. Nance, Apr. 18, 1976 (original in possession of author).

George B. Ward to Jerry D. Thompson, Nov. 1, 1999, e-mail (printed copy in possession of the author).

second citation:

Carlson to Cottrell, Oct. 20, 1987 (interview).

Marshall to Nance, Apr. 18, 1976.

Ward to Thompson, Nov. 1, 1999.

Internet sources

Web sites:

"Samuel E. Chamberlain's My Confession," <http://www.tshaonline.org/supsites/chamber/> [Acessed Apr. 26, 2010].

The Handbook of Texas Online:

"Gilmer, Texas," The Handbook of Texas Online, <http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/GG/hfg4.html> [Accessed April 26, 2010].

Listserv Messages:

Ricky Dobbs, "Review: Cantrell, Stephen F. Austin: Empresario of Texas," H-TEXAS, h-texas@h-net.msu.edu, Dec. 9, 1999. Archived at: http://www.h-net.msu.edu/~texas/

Maps

published:

Stephen Fuller Austin, Map of Texas (Philadelphia: H. S. Tanner, 1830).

manuscript:

Nicholas Rightor, "Map of the Country Between the Brassos and La Baca Rivers," 1822, Stephen F. Austin Map Collection (Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin).

from book:

a published map: Thomas Gamaliel Bradford, Texas, 1835, in Robert Sidney Martin and James C. Martin, Contours of Discovery: Printed Maps Delineating the Texas and Southwestern Chapters in the Cartographic History of North America, 1513–1930. A User's Guide (Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1982), 25.

a manuscript map: José Maria Puelles, "Mapa Geografica de las Provincias Septentrionales de Esta Nueva Espana," in Matin and Martin, Contours of Discovery, 22.

online:

Texas, from The New Encyclopedia Atlas and Gazetter of the World, 1917 (PCL Map Collection) <http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/texas_1917.jpg> [Accessed Feb. 5, 2001].

second citation:

Austin, Map of Texas.

Rightor, "Map of the Country Between the Brassos and La Baca Rivers."

Bradford, Texas, in Martin and Martin, Contours of Discovery, 25.

Music

Songs:

Slim Willet, "Righneck," Texas Oil Patch Songs by Slim Willet, Winston LP 1040 (1959).

second citation:

Willet, "Roughneck."

ILLUSTRATIONS

Illustrations are an important component of our books and Quarterly articles. Authors should indicate upon submission how articles and books will be illustrated. They should provide photocopies of potential illustrations, information regarding the sources of these illustrations, and captions and credits for the illustrations with their submission. Every article in the Quarterly must have at least one illustration for its opening spread, and each article can accommodate from five to ten images. For books and articles, authors should indicate in the margin or within the text of the manuscripts approximately where each illustration should appear, and they should use a numbering system for each illustration that identifies the order in which the illustration will appear (see caption discussion below). If an article or book is accepted for publication and the editors choose to use some or all of the illustrations accompanying the submission, the author will be responsible for providing either 5 x 7-inch black-and-white glossy photographs or digital images of those illustrations. We prefer to use JPEG or TIFF files if images are submitted electronically. At this stage, your editor can advise you regarding the best way to submit digital images for reproduction.

Authors are responsible for ordering prints or digital files of the illustrations that will be used with their articles. When a manuscript is accepted for publication, the author should immediately order and collect the images to ensure that the editors have them in hand when production begins.

For books with many illustrations, captions and illustrations should be numbered to correspond to the chapter and order in which they will appear (e.g., illustration 1.1 is the first illustration in chapter 1). These numbers should be used in the text to designate the location of each illustration.

Captions for artwork, daguerreotypes, and the like should include the title or subject of the work, the name of the artist, the date, the medium, the dimensions (height by width in feet and inches), and a credit line, in that order. When dimensions are given for an image that has been copied from a book or other printed matter, rather than from the original, they should refer to the size of the original itself, rather than to the size at which it was reproduced. Authors are responsible for securing necessary permissions to reproduce illustrations and for paying the usage fees for the illustrations.

TABLES

All tabular material should be separate from the text, in a series of tables numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in the order of their appearance in the text. Each table should be printed on a separate page, double-spaced, and identified by a short descriptive title centered at the top. Notes for tables appear at the bottom of each table and are marked with lowercase superscript letters. Indicate in the text approximately where each table should appear in the text. Do not embed tables as part of the article; save tables as a separate file.

BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

For both books and articles, an author should provide a brief biographical statement that is separate from the text and notes, so that it can be easily removed for the peer review process. This is also the place for an author to thank individuals and institutions for assistance. If an article is accepted for publication in the Quarterly, the acknowledgment will become the first unnumbered note. Such acknowledgments should be brief. For book-length manuscripts acknowledgments and biographical information should be saved as separate files.