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TEXAS NATIVE AMERICAN TIMELINE

Planning Sheet 2

OVERVIEW OF ARCHEOLOGICAL CHRONOLOGY IN TEXAS

Period Dates Characteristics Artifacts
HISTORIC 1600-1800 Cabeza de Vaca; Spanish missions; entry of Tonkawas, Apaches, and Comanches Spanish Colonial artifacts; gunflints; metal arrowpoints
LATE PREHISTORIC 700-1600 Toyah phase bison hunters; villages in the Panhandle; Caddo cultures in East Texas pottery; introduction of bow and arrow (tiny arrowpoints); agriculture in parts of state
TRANSITIONAL ARCHAIC 300 B.C.-A.D. 700 first mounds in East Texas; hunters and gatherers continue elsewhere dart points are smaller: Ensor, Frio, Fairland, Paisano
LATE ARCHAIC 1000-300 bison hunting in Panhandle, lower Pecos, Central Texas; increased trade; cemeteries in Southeast and South Texas large points for hunting; Castroville, Montell; "corner tang" knives
MIDDLE ARCHAIC 2500-1000 hunters and gatherers across Texas; rock art begins in lower Pecos; burned-rock middens in Central Texas Langtry points in West Texas; Pedernales points in Central Texas
EARLY ARCHAIC 6000-2500 development of modern vegetation and fauna; hunting and gathering; possible period of aridity 5500-3000 B.C. widespread point types cut across regions: Bell, Uvalde, Martindale, Gower
PALEO-INDIAN 9600-6000 earliest occupations by Native Americans, with Pleistocene or ice age ending around 8000 B.C.; first peoples are known as Clovis and hunted mammoths and other ice-age animals distinctive point types: Angostura, Golondrina, Plainview, Folsom, Clovis

From Ron Tyler, Douglas E. Barnett, Roy R. Barkley, Penelope C. Anderson, Mark F. Odintz, eds., "Prehistory," The New Handbook of Texas, 6 vols., (Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1996), Vol. 5, p. 321.