Adams Bayou rises 1½ miles east of the hamlet of Robertson, Jasper County, in southwestern Newton County (at 30°18' N, 93°53' W) and flows southeast across Newton and Orange counties before entering the Sabine River southeast of West Orange (at 30°03' N, 93°44' W). The stream is intermittent near its point of origin. It flows through woodlands and marshland and is briefly paralleled by a levee just south of the Newton county line. Adams Bayou has been used to provide water for irrigation and power for sawmills. It is crossed by several highways and railroads, including Interstate Highway 10, U.S. Highway 90, the Missouri Pacific Railroad, and the Sabine River and Northern Railroad. The towns of Orange, West Orange, and Pinehurst are all bordered by Adams Bayou.