Augustus Calhoun Allen, businessman and Confederate officer, was born in Pike County, Georgia, March 6, 1838, the son of Young D. Allen and Sarah Sale. Allen was raised in both Georgia and Mississippi, but prior to reaching school age, he moved with his family to New Orleans, Louisiana. Allen attended school in New Orleans, as well as apprenticed and clerked in a large mercantile establishment. In 1856 and 1857 he participated in William Walker's expeditions to Nicaragua. Following the collapse of Walker's efforts in Central America, Allen returned to New Orleans, where he resumed his activity as a merchant. In November 1858 Allen married Virginia Adams. This couple had two daughters.
In 1860 Allen moved to Texas and established a business in Jefferson County. Upon the outbreak of the Civil War, he enlisted on March 31, 1862, as a captain in Richard Waterhouse's Regiment Texas Volunteers. Allen's company subsequently was mustered into service in the Confederate Army as Company C of the Nineteenth Texas Infantry Regiment that was organized in May 1862. The Nineteenth Infantry operated within the Trans-Mississippi Department and saw action in Arkansas and Louisiana including operations against Nathaniel Bank's Red River campaign, such as the battle of Jenkins' Ferry. Allen saw action with this unit in Arkansas and Louisiana. On February 4, 1864, he was taken prisoner by Union forces twenty miles outside of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. For nearly five months he was held as a prisoner of war in New Orleans at 21 Rampart Street. On July 22, 1864, he was exchanged at Red River Landing, Louisiana. Following his exchange, Allen was promoted to major and assigned to Hempstead, Texas, where he remained until the end of the war. Following the war, Allen returned to Jefferson. In 1879 he moved to Texarkana, Bowie County, where he established himself as the operator of a cotton press. Allen retired in the 1880s and lived in his home in Texarkana as late as 1914. He died March 15, 1914, Jefferson, TX, at his daughter’s home, and is buried in Oakwood Cemetery, Jefferson.