Joaquín de Arredondo, military commandant, son of Nicolás de Arredondo y Palegrí and Josefa Roso de Mioño, was born in Barcelona, Spain, in 1768. His father became a governor of Cuba and a viceroy of Buenos Aires. He entered the Royal Spanish Guards as a cadet in 1787, was commissioned probably by the end of the eighteenth century for service in New Spain, and in 1810 was promoted to colonel and given the command of the infantry regiment of Veracruz. After being made military commandant of the Huasteca and governor of Nuevo Santander in 1811, he was instrumental in suppressing Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's revolt and criollo-related revolts in that province in 1812 and 1813, and was rewarded by being appointed as commandant of the eastern division of the Provincias Internas in 1813. Reinforced with new troops, he left for San Antonio and on August 18, 1813, defeated the rebels under José Álvarez de Toledo y Dubois in the battle of Medina. Over a thousand republican soldiers died during this battle or were shot afterwards. Arredondo’s also ordered bloody purges of suspected collaborators among the civilian population and the imprisonment and forced labor of hundreds of women in San Antonio, which gained him the nickname of the “Butcher of Béxar” (see LA QUINTA). Arredondo quickly cleared the province of insurgents and appointed Cristóbal Domínguez ad interim governor of Texas. After completing his assignment in Texas, he returned to Monterrey. He subsequently crushed the filibustering expedition of Francisco Xavier Mina by overrunning his defenses at the village of Soto la Marina in October 1817. On January 17, 1821, near the end of his tenure as commandant, Arredondo approved the petition of Moses Austin to bring settlers to Texas. At Monterrey on July 3, 1821, he endorsed the Plan of Iguala and swore allegiance to the new Mexican nation. Shortly after the Mexican War of Independence, Arredondo surrendered his command and retired to Havana, where he died in 1837.
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Vito Alessio Robles, Coahuila y Texas en la época colonial (Mexico City: Editorial Cultura, 1938; 2d ed., Mexico City: Editorial Porrúa, 1978). Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of the North Mexican States and Texas (2 vols., San Francisco: History Company, 1886, 1889). Joseph E. Chance, José María De Jesús Carvajal: The Life and Times of a Mexican Revolutionary (San Antonio: Trinity University Press, 2006). Donald E. Chipman, Spanish Texas, 1519–1821 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992). Enciclopedia de México (special ed., 14 vols., Mexico City: Secretaría de Educación Pública, 1987–88). Bradley Folsom, Arredondo: Last Spanish Ruler of Texas and Northeastern New Spain (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2017). David B. Gracy II, Moses Austin: His Life (San Antonio: Trinity University Press, 1987). José María Miguel i Vergés, Diccionario de Insurgentes (Mexico City: Editorial Porrúa, 1969). Ted Schwarz and Robert H. Thonhoff, Forgotten Battlefield of the First Texas Revolution: The Battle of Medina (Austin: Eakin Press, 1985). Henderson K. Yoakum, History of Texas from Its First Settlement in 1685 to Its Annexation to the United States in 1846 (2 vols., New York: Redfield, 1855).
The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.
Robert H. Thonhoff,
“Arredondo, Joaquín de,”
Handbook of Texas Online,
accessed May 17, 2022,
Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
Original Publication Date:
Most Recent Revision Date:
May 4, 2022
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