Artesia Wells is on Interstate Highway 35 eleven miles south of Cotulla in western La Salle County. It takes its name from the artesian wells that once provided water for the residents of the area. The town, originally a water stop called Bart on the International-Great Northern Railroad, was one of several new settlements in the Winter Garden region when irrigation opened new land to farming in the early 1900s. A legal plat for Artesia Wells was filed in 1907. Farmers moved into the area, and the town grew slowly over the next thirty years. In 1909 a post office opened, and by 1915 the town also had a general store and a restaurant. By 1925 Artesia Wells had a school and by 1929 an estimated population of 100. In 1936 only fifty people lived there. In 1939 Artesia Wells had four businesses and a population of 125. After the end of World War II the settlement began a decline. In 1950 it reported two businesses and fifty residents. When I-35 was constructed through the town, many of the buildings were torn down or moved back to make room for the highway. By the early 1970s Artesia Wells had lost its school and had only thirty residents and one small store. In 1988 the town reported four businesses. In 1990 the population was thirty and in 2000 had grown to thirty-five.