Henry Weidner Baylor, physician and soldier, was born in Paris, Kentucky, in 1818, the son of Sophie Marie (Weidner) and John Walker Baylor. In 1839 he visited his brother John Robert Baylor, who had moved to Texas in that year, and joined him on Col. John H. Moore's campaign against the Comanches. He then returned to Kentucky. After taking both literary and medical degrees at Transylvania University he moved to Texas and began his practice in La Grange, Fayette County.
At the outbreak of the Mexican War he enlisted as a private in Capt. Claibourn C. Hebert's Company E of Col. John Coffee Hays's First Regiment, Texas Mounted Riflemen, raised at Columbus, Texas. He took part in the storming of Monterrey and, on September 6, was promoted to regimental surgeon. In October, at the end of the regiment's enlistment period, Baylor raised Company E. of Maj. Michael Chevallie's battalion of Texas mounted volunteers and was elected its captain. Baylor's company was recruited in San Antonio and was in federal service from June 17, 1847, through June 30, 1848, attached to Gen. Zachary Taylor's headquarters. It spent much of its enlistment period on garrison duty in Monterrey, Nuevo León, but experienced severe fighting with Indians near Las Tablas on August 5, 1847, in which the company lost six men killed and an unknown number wounded. After the war Baylor moved to Independence and there established a medical practice and farm. On September 10, 1851, he married Laurie Johnson Metcalfe in Washington County. He died on August 4, 1853. On his gravestone are the words, "Keep My Memory Green." Henry Weidner Baylor was the brother of George Wythe Baylor as well as John Robert Baylor; he was the nephew of Robert Emmett Bledsoe Baylor. Baylor County was named in his honor.