Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas began in 1903 as Good Samaritan Hospital, a two-story brick house converted into a private hospital. A year later, after being purchased by the Baptist General Convention of Texas, the hospital became Texas Baptist Memorial Sanitarium. Fifty-five years later, that institution became Baylor University Medical Center. BUMC comprises five connecting patient hospitals and a cancer center; Baylor is the second largest nonprofit private hospital in the United States. The center, licensed for 1,509 beds, treated 408,581 patients in fiscal 1992. As a major referral center, it offers specialized treatment centers for cancer, heart disease, diabetes, digestive diseases, alcohol and drug abuse, psoriasis, asthma, hair loss, breast disease, eating disorders, neonatology, pediatrics, infectious diseases, and weight management.
In 1943 the hospital faced a severe blow when its medical school, Baylor University College of Medicine (now Baylor College of Medicine), moved to Houston. The school's poor financial status, coupled with plans to build a second medical school in Dallas, precipitated its acceptance of an offer by the M. D. Anderson Foundation in Houston. Although the Dallas medical school officially graduated its last class in June 1943, the tradition of medical education continued at Baylor University Medical Center. Each year medical residents and fellows as well as nursing students complete their education there, and more than 300 individuals are trained in allied health sciences.
In addition to liver transplants, Baylor surgeons perform kidney, heart, lung, and bone marrow transplants. In 1987 Baylor's liver-transplant program, one of the largest adult programs in the United States, had the highest survival rate in the country. That year the National Institutes of Health named Baylor's program one of only five "centers of excellence." Like many major medical centers, Baylor supports medical research. The Baylor Research Institute underwrites much of the funding available for nine major areas targeted for study: digestive diseases, photobiology, transplantation biology, oncology, immunology, biomedical science, metabolic diseases, radiology, and surgical research. In all, Baylor sponsors 327 ongoing research projects.
Baylor University Medical Center is the hub of the Baylor Health Care System, a nonprofit network founded in 1981. The system comprises five North Texas hospitals: Baylor University Medical Center, Baylor Institute for Rehabilitation, and Baylor Medical centers at Ennis, Garland, Grapevine, and Waxahachie.