Black, on U.S. Highway 60 in northeastern Parmer County, was established in 1898 as a station on the Pecos Valley and Northern Texas Railway. It was named for E. B. Black, who in 1901 purchased farmland north of the railroad from his brother-in-law, J. E. English. In 1908 the Wright Land Company began selling XIT Ranch lands, and buyers came in on the company's special excursion trains. In 1910 a school was opened in Black, and a post office was established in 1912, with J. Baker as postmaster. The post office was discontinued twice, in 1914 and 1920, then reestablished in 1926. For a time sweet potatoes were grown commercially around Black. In 1921 Ray Conway opened a grocery store, a portion of which was used for church services and community gatherings. After the Black school district was consolidated with the Friona schools in 1950, the former school building was remodeled into a community center. A mercantile store was also a focal point until it closed in 1981 after owner Les Deaton retired. Nevertheless, the Black community has remained active through various social clubs, youth organizations, and its annual Thanksgiving dinner. Grain elevators dominate the town, which in 1980 reported four businesses and in 1990 a population of 100. The population remained the same in 2000, when the town reported twelve businesses.