Bonanza is off State Highway 19 thirteen miles south of Sulphur Springs in southwestern Hopkins County. The site was settled in the late 1860s or early 1870s. The community was originally known as Fowler's Store when M. W. Fowler secured a post office there in 1879. The post office was renamed Cold Hill in 1883 and Bonanza in 1898. By 1885 the town had a gristmill and cotton gin, Baptist and Presbyterian churches, a hotel, a blacksmith, two grocers, and a population of 100. A local public school opened around 1900, and during the 1905–06 school year it had an enrollment of sixty. In 1906 the post office was closed. The census of 1940 gave the population as forty. In 1948 the community had a store, a church, and a two-teacher school. The school was later closed, and in the late 1980s the site of the town was marked only by a number of scattered dwellings. In 2000 the community reported twenty-six inhabitants.