Calzones Colorados (Red Breeches) was chief of an Orcoquiza Indian village east of the Trinity River ten or fifteen miles from its mouth. When several Frenchmen under Joseph Blancpain were arrested in October 1754, their goods were confiscated, and their huts were given to Calzones Colorados by the Spanish, who had also given him the name. Both the Spanish and French tried to use the chief as a pawn in their diplomatic game for control of Southeast Texas. In 1760 Calzones Colorados reported that Louis Juchereau de St. Denis had sent two Bidai Indians to bribe him to come to Natchitoches, Louisiana, to secure ammunition to kill the Spanish at El Orcoquisac but that he had refused the bribe. The Spanish contributed to his village two cattle and five fanegas of corn a week to secure the Indians as neophytes of Nuestra Señora de la Luz Mission. In 1764 Calzones was an intermediary in the quarrel between Rafael Martínez Pacheco and Marcos Ruiz over the administration of San Agustín de Ahumada Presidio and was bribed by Pacheco to oppose attempts to remove the Trinity River missions to Los Horconcitos. The Spanish finally abandoned the area in 1771 but later named one of the tributaries of the Trinity Arroyo de Calzones in honor of the chief.
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Herbert Eugene Bolton, Texas in the Middle Eighteenth Century: Studies in Spanish Colonial History and Administration (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1915; rpt., Austin: University of Texas Press, 1970).
Chiefs and Other Leaders
The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.
Handbook of Texas Online,
accessed May 22, 2022,
Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
Original Publication Date:
Most Recent Revision Date:
April 5, 2020