José Angel Cárdenas, educator, school administrator, and education reformer, was born on October 16, 1930, in Laredo, Texas, to Justo Cárdenas, Jr., and Matilde Alicia (Ochoa) Cárdenas. Cárdenas came from a transnational family with connections to Monterrey, Nuevo León. His oldest brother became a medical doctor in Monterrey, while another brother and a sister pursued business interests in the same city. Cárdenas’s maternal side of the family was also involved in business in Monterrey. His paternal grandfather, Justo Cárdenas, a journalist in Mexico, chose a life of exile in 1883 rather than support the dictatorship of President Porfirio Díaz. Aside from two newspapers that he published in Monterrey, the elder Cárdenas established two “free-thinking” and pro-labor newspapers, El Correo de Laredo and El Demócrata Fronterizo, in Laredo. Both newspapers reported and opined on Mexican history and culture as well as on the social challenges that the Mexican-origin communities faced in the United States.
At fifteen years of age, José Angel Cárdenas graduated from Martin High School in Laredo in 1946. He secured an undergraduate degree from the University of Texas at Austin in 1950. While he was an undergraduate at the university, Cárdenas was a member of the Alba Club, a Mexican American organization with an agenda for Mexican American social and cultural advancement. From 1951 to 1953 he served in the U. S. Army as a radio operation instructor during the Korean War, and he achieved the rank of corporal. He then returned to school and earned a master’s degree in education from Our Lady of the Lake University in San Antonio in 1955. Eleven years later, the College of Education at the University of Texas at Austin awarded him a doctorate.
In the 1950s Cárdenas worked for the Edgewood Independent School District in San Antonio and rose through the district as an educator and administrator, becoming vice principal in charge of attendance and discipline at Edgewood High School in 1955. After a stint as the principal of Stafford Elementary School beginning in 1958, Cárdenas became an associate professor and chair of the Department of Education at St. Mary’s University from 1961 to 1967. After obtaining his doctorate in 1966, he became the director of the Texas Migrant Education Development Center at the Southwest Education Development Lab in Austin.
In 1969 Cárdenas became the superintendent at Edgewood Independent School District; he was the first Mexican American to obtain that position in San Antonio and Bexar County. In 1971 Cardenas obtained three national grants from the Department of Health, Education and Welfare for the Experimental Schools project and propelled the school district to national attention as a model of multiple strategies to address the learning needs of poor children with second-language learning needs (see BILINGUIAL EDUCATION). He instituted the Early Childhood Education Program, a center for daycare services for infants, and he also established the first district-wide, non-Head Start Early Childhood Education Program for all children, ages three to five, in the district. As superintendent he took the bold step of serving as an expert witness in support of Mexican American plaintiffs in the case Rodríguez v. San Antonio ISD that ultimately went to the U. S. Supreme Court in 1973. The Mexican American parents challenged the state’s antiquated method of financing the schools that failed to guarantee their children an equal education.
In 1973 Cárdenas resigned as superintendent of Edgewood ISD when he founded Texans for Educational Excellence (TEE) to pursue a thirty-nine-year struggle for equity in school funding in Texas and other states. Expanding its mission to research and evaluation, pedagogical and leadership training, and advocacy, TEE incorporated under the name of the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) in 1974. Cárdenas served as director of IDRA until 1992 and was then director emeritus until his death. The organization has worked in numerous areas, including school finance, testing, ethnic studies, and equity in pre-kindergarten to colleges and universities.
Cárdenas served on numerous boards and commissions, including the National Commission of Testing and Public Policy at the University of California, Berkeley; the Minority Action Council Quality Education for Minorities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and the International Year of the Child in Washington, D.C.
Numerous institutions have acknowledged Cárdenas’s contributions to education, including recognition by the White House Conference on Children for the Early Childhood Center that he established and directed at Edgewood in the 1970s. Officials from Edgewood named the center for him and rededicated it in 2010. His many honors include Educator of the Year given by the Texas Association for Bilingual Education in 1980, the National Association for Bilingual Education Special Recognition Award in 1982, and the NABE Texas Pioneer in Bilingual Education honor in 1993. The University of Texas at Austin also recognized him in 1997 with the Distinguished Alumnus Award for his research and advocacy in education. St. Mary’s School of Law and its Center for Latina/o Legal Studies honored him posthumously in 2012.
Cárdenas’s publications are numerous and include large numbers of reports and articles that he published as the executive director of IDRA. Others include, The Theory of Incompatibilities: A Conceptual Framework for Responding to the Educational Needs of Mexican American Children (co-authored with Dr. Blandina Cárdenas, 1977), All Pianos Have Keys and Other Stories (1994), Multicultural Education; A Generation of Advocacy (1995), Texas School Finance Reform: An IDRA Perspective (1997), and My Spanish-Speaking Left Foot (1997).
His legacy is also evident in legal records that include his expert witness testimonials. Cárdenas addressed the courts in more than seventy cases, including Rodríguez v. San Antonio ISD (1973); Keyes v. School District No. 1, Denver (1973); Lau v. Nichols (1974); Otero v. Mesa County Valley, School District No. 51 (1980); and Castañeda v. Pickard (1978). He collaborated with the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund and other Mexican American organizations in framing the pedagogical and equity issues at the core of these cases.
Researchers can consult Cárdenas’s extensive records as well as the historical materials of TEE and IDRA at the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection at the University of Texas at Austin. Blandina Cárdenas, a longtime associate and major educational reformer, best captured the memory of his passion and belief in educational equity for all children: “Charming and self-assured, José had all the assets to succeed in any field, instead he dedicated his highly disciplined and brilliant mind to the advancement of the most disadvantaged children in the county.”
After suffering a series of strokes late in life, José Angel Cárdenas died in San Antonio on September 17, 2011. He was survived by his wife of thirty-nine years, Laura Doreen Tobin Cárdenas, two sons, and two daughters. Another daughter preceded him in death. A funeral Mass took place at St. Luke’s Catholic Church in San Antonio, and he was buried at Fort Sam Houston National Cemetery.
Blandina Cárdenas, Interview by Emilio Zamora, July 1, 2020. José A. Cárdenas Papers and Records of the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA), 1960–1998, Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas at Austin. “José A. Cárdenas, Ed.D.,” Intercultural Development Research Association (https://www.idra.org/staff/jcardenas/), accessed November 12, 2020. “Obituary, Dr. Jose Angel Cardenas, October 16, 1930 – September 17, 2011,” Sunset Northwest Funeral Home, San Antonio, (https://www.dignitymemorial.com/obituaries/san-antonio-tx/jose-cardenas-4819361), accessed November 12, 2020. San Antonio Express-News, September 19, 2011.
Activism and Social Reform
School Principals and Superintendents
Texas Post World War II
The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.
Emilio Zamora and Aurelio M. Montemayor,
“Cárdenas, José Angel,”
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