Benajah Harvey Carroll, Jr., minister, journalist, author, and diplomat, was born at Waco, Texas, on March 3, 1874, the son of Ellen Virginia (Bell) and Benajah Harvey Carroll. He received his A.B. degree from Baylor University, took an LL.B. degree at the University of Texas in 1894, and received degrees in theology from the Southern Baptist Seminary at Louisville, Kentucky, in 1900 and 1901. His M.A. and Ph.D. degrees were awarded by Friedrich Wilhelm Universität in Berlin in 1904. He was accomplished in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and Spanish.
Carroll was ordained a minister by the First Baptist Church at Waco in 1894 and served various pastorates in Kentucky and Texas before he surrendered his credentials in 1906. For a time he was head of the department of history and political economy at Baylor University. He was captain and field chaplain of the First United States Volunteers, Texas Cavalry, during the Spanish-American War. Governor S. W. T. Lanham appointed him to his staff as lieutenant colonel and aide-de-camp in the Texas National Guard. For seven or eight years Carroll was on the editorial staff of the Houston Chronicle. In 1912 and 1913 he owned, published, and edited a weekly magazine, The Stylus, at Houston.
In April 1914 he was appointed United States consul to Venice, where he served during World War I. He had charge of the first Red Cross war work in Venice and was associated with the defense of the city, where his work earned high and unusual honors, including the red handkerchief and the regimental colors of Garibaldi, the Cross of War, membership in the Alpini Brigade, Gonfaloniere of the Lion of St. Mark, and Ufficiale dell' Ordine della Corona d'Italia. He was later consul at Naples and at Cádiz, Spain.
Carroll wrote The Genesis of American Anti-Missionism (1902), Die Annexion von Texas: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Monroe-Doktrin (1904); and A Political History of Europe from 1815 to 1848 (1906). He was editor of a Standard History of Houston (1912), and he also produced numerous newspaper articles, poems, and short stories.
Carroll married Daisy Crawford on August 6, 1905. He became ill in Cádiz and died at the English Colonial Hospital at Gibraltar on March 31, 1922. His body was returned to Texas, and he was buried beside his son in Glenwood Cemetery, Houston, on April 21, 1922.