Cauble, Peter (1786–1870)

By: Julia Cauble Smith

Type: Biography

Published: 1976

Updated: December 1, 1994

Peter Cauble, early Texas settler, was born in Guilford County, North Carolina, in 1786. He received a good education and taught school for many years. About 1811 he moved to Tennessee, where he met and married Mary Ann Rotan of South Carolina. They had six children. Cauble moved to Texas from Alabama in 1829 and lived for a short time in Nacogdoches County. In 1831 he brought his family to Texas and settled at Peach Tree Village in old Liberty (now Tyler) County. Like hundreds of settlers living in old Liberty County before and during the Texas Revolution, he failed to secure a land title from the Mexican government. Although he was living and farming at Peach Tree Village from 1831, the area was included in a five-league tract granted on March 17, 1834, to Gavino Aranjo, a Mexican company commander at Fort Terán. Aranjo, however, never took possession, and without regard to the land's legal ownership Cauble built a large hewn-log house in 1835, which became a landmark. It was used to describe the boundary of the newly established Polk County in 1846. The Cauble house was also the dividing point for the roads in Tyler County-that is, overseers were appointed for either direction away from the house.

Cauble served in the volunteer army during the Texas struggle for independence. When the General Land Office awarded headrights in 1838, he received Certificate No. 56 for 640 acres. An early deed by Frost Thorn conveyed land at Peach Tree Village to Peter Cauble on April 2, 1844. By 1860, with the Aranjo land available, Cauble built the 5,000-acre Peach Tree Plantation and began operating one of the county's first cotton gins. He was road commissioner and justice of Tyler County for several years. In August 1861 he enlisted as a private in the Mount Hope Home Guards, an organization to protect Tyler County. Cauble acquired substantial holdings through the use of "borrowed" land and slave labor. He stubbornly stood his ground in the conflicts that arose, which included lawsuits and fistfights. He died on March 9, 1870, at his home and was buried in the Cauble-Burch Cemetery, a few hundred yards from his log plantation house.

Hans Peter Nielsen Gammel, comp., Laws of Texas, 1822–1897 (10 vols., Austin: Gammel, 1898). It's Dogwood Time in Tyler County, 1967. Thomas L. Miller, The Public Lands of Texas, 1519–1970 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972). Lou Ella Moseley, Pioneer Days of Tyler County (Fort Worth: Miran, 1975). Buckley B. Paddock, History of Central and Western Texas (2 vols., Chicago: Lewis, 1911). James E. and Josiah Wheat et al., Sketches of Tyler County History (Woodville, Texas: Tyler County Sesquicentennial Committee, 1986).

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.

Julia Cauble Smith, “Cauble, Peter,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed May 29, 2022,

Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

December 1, 1994