Charlotte is at the junction of State Highway 97 and Farm roads 140, 1548, and 1333, in southwestern Atascosa County. Coahuiltecan Indian groups once roamed the site. Charlotte was carved from the Old Tobey Ranch, which at the time of its founding was owned by Jourdan Campbell and T. H. Zanderson. In 1910 the townsite was laid out by J. F. Edwards in the form of a wagon wheel, the streets forming spokes. In 1911 J. E. Franklin, from Missouri, offered to construct a railroad through the county. Landowners donated land to help finance the project; George F. Hindes and M. M. Davis are reported to have given thousands of acres. The name Charlotte was given by Dr. Charles Simmons, who aided in the development of Atascosa County. Towns in the county were named for all three of his daughters, Charlotte, Imogene, and Christine. In the early days cotton was the principle crop around Charlotte. At one time farmers waited in line for twenty-four hours, their wagons loaded, to have their cotton ginned. But ranching is still the basic industry, and some ranchers have developed fine herds of registered cattle. Some have also established dairy farms. Oil was discovered in 1946; there are now more than 700 producing oil wells in the school district.
The first store in Charlotte, built by J. M. Couser in 1910, was sold to W. M. Wilson. Other merchants were S. Fleischman, A. F. Hahn, A. K. McBride, John Neal, and Hugh Dixon, and the town had a drugstore, a hotel, a hardware store, and a blacksmith shop. Charlotte was incorporated on December 21, 1946. In 1963 the Charlotte Rotary Club sponsored the Charlotte Community Recreation Association, which organized a little league and a rodeo. The First Baptist Church was organized on January 21, 1914. Members set aside acreage of cotton to finance construction of their first building, which was replaced in 1951. The church supported a mission for the Spanish-speaking citizens of the community. The Methodist church was established in 1912, with twenty-three charter members. At first Charlotte was on a circuit with Fowlerton, Jourdanton, Poteet, and Christine. A parsonage was built in 1938, at which time the church became a station. The old building was replaced in 1950. St. Rose of Lima Catholic Church was established in 1909. It was served by Claretian Fathers from San Antonio. A new building was dedicated in honor of St. Mary on July 25, 1925. Improvements were made in 1944 and 1972. The first public school was conducted in 1913 by Mrs. Sauer, who held classes in a dance hall over a bakery. By 1914 a new building was constructed, and the school became an independent district by 1919. As enrollment increased the school started a four-year high school. In 1935 citizens voted bonds of $25,000 to construct a new school plant, and received a Public Works Administration grant of $23,000. The district added elementary and lunchroom buildings in 1948. A new gymnasium and an auditorium were built in 1950. In 1990 the population of Charlotte was 1,475. In 2000 the population was 1,637.