The county judge, called "chief justice" by early constitutions, was appointed by the Congress of the Republic of Texas for four-year terms until the office was made elective in 1841. The term of office was shortened to two years in the constitutions of 1845 and 1861. Under the Constitution of 1866 the name was changed to county judge, and the term was again four years. The office was abolished by the Constitution of 1869 but was reestablished with an elective two-year term by the Constitution of 1876. A constitutional amendment passed in 1954 increased the term of office to four years. The main duties of the county judge are to serve as presiding officer of the county commissioners' court, judge of the county court, and budgeting officer of the county; he also has numerous duties pertaining to elections. In counties having fewer than 3,000 students the county judge serves as ex officio county school superintendent.