The Fourteenth Texas Infantry Regiment was organized and mustered in the early summer of 1862. The original commander of the regiment was Edward Clark, a former lieutenant governor of Texas under Sam Houston. Clark decided to organize the regiment after having been narrowly defeated by Francis R. Lubbock in the 1861 Texas gubernatorial election. The original unit consisted of officers and men principally recruited from six Northeast Texas counties: Harrison, Polk, Rusk, Smith, Titus, and Upshur.
Throughout the Civil War, the Fourteenth Texas served in numerous higher commands in Louisiana and Texas. With Lt. Col. William Byrd as second-in-command and Augustus H. Rogers as major, the regiment was first assigned to the Eastern District of Texas, Trans-Mississippi Department, from May to August 1862. In September the unit was assigned to Randal's Brigade, McCulloch's Division, District of Arkansas, Trans-Mississippi Department. However, it appears that the unit did not serve in Arkansas and instead was reassigned to operations in Louisiana and attached to Randal's Brigade, McCulloch's Division, Second Corps, Trans-Mississippi Department.
From September 30, 1862, to January 1863, the Fourteenth Texas remained attached to McCulloch's Division. In February 1863 McCulloch's Division was combined with Walker's Texas Division and assigned to the District of Arkansas. Yet, again it does not appear that the unit ever served in Arkansas. Instead, in April 1863 the regiment was reassigned to Walker's Division and sent to Louisiana.
From April 19 to May 14, 1863, the unit took part in operations in western Louisiana and the Teche Country including engagements on April 12–13 at Fort Bisland, Bethel Place, and Bayou Teche, and on April 14 at Irish Bend. In June the Fourteenth Texas saw action at Milliken's Bend and Young's Point and took part in engagements to capture Brashear City.
On July 12–13, 1863, the unit took part in engagements at Cox's Plantation, Donaldsonville, and Bayou LaFourche. These engagements along the low country of the Mississippi River wreaked havoc on the unit in terms of various fevers and digestive disorders. The surgeon of the Fourteenth Texas recorded 260 illnesses among the 319 men in the regiment. He attributed this high rate of illness to the fact that the men were forced to "drink Bio [bayou] water with a perfect scum on it."
Beginning on October 3, 1863, the regiment engaged in operations again in western Louisiana and the Teche Country. During this campaign, the unit saw action at Opelousas and Barre Landing on October 21, at Washington on October 24 and 31, and at Bayou Bourbeau and Buzzard's Prairie on November 2. In addition, the regiment saw action on October 3 at Grand Coteau, Bayou Bourbeau, Carrion Crow Bayou, and Buzzard's Prairie.
On December 31, 1864, the Fourteenth Texas was assigned to the Third Texas Infantry Brigade, First (Forney's) Texas Infantry Division, First Corps, Army of Trans-Mississippi. The regiment took part in operations against Gen. Nathaniel Banks's Red River campaign from March 10 to April 10, 1864, including action against the Union advance from Franklin, as well as the battles of Mansfield and Pleasant Hill on April 8 and the second engagement at Pleasant Hill on April 9.
From April 16 to May 3, 1864, the regiment took part in operations against Steele's expedition from Little Rock. These operations included engagements in Arkansas at Marks' Mills on April 25 and Jenkins' Ferry and Saline River on April 30. The engagement at Jenkins' Ferry was particularly bloody for the regiment. One Texan in the regiment wrote that his company "lost about half of its men, killed wounded. After the fight we had sergeants commanding companies and captains commanding regiments."
Either in the summer or early fall of 1864 the Fourteenth Texas was ordered to Shreveport, Louisiana, where it served for a brief period. Shortly thereafter the unit was moved to Hempstead, Texas, via Marshall where it disbanded sometime in May 1865 before the surrender of Trans-Mississippi armies in June. Although the Fourteenth Texas was included among the Trans-Mississippi Confederate units that surrendered at Galveston in June 1865, it is most likely the regiment disbanded in Hempstead upon hearing of the surrender of Confederate forces east of the Mississippi River.