Alwyn Barr, Black Texans: A History of African Americans in Texas, 1528–1995 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996). Kenneth L. Brown, Carol McDavid, Rachel Feit, and Fred L. McGhee, “African American Archaeology in Texas: A Planning Document,” June 1, 2013, Texas Historical Commission Staff Files. Robert D. Bullard, Invisible Houston: The Black Experience in Boom and Bust (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1987). Maria Franklin and Nedra Lee, “African American Descendants, Community Outreach, and the Ransom and Sarah Williams Farmstead Project,” Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage 7 (2020). Historical Marker Files, Texas Historical Commission, Austin. Carol McDavid, “When Is ‘Gone’ Gone? Archaeology, Gentrification, and Competing Narratives about Freedmen’s Town, Houston,” Historical Archaeology 45 (2011). Michelle M. Mears, African American Settlement Patterns in Austin, Texas, 1865–1928 (M.A. thesis, Baylor University, 2001). Merline Pitre, “A Note on the Historiography of Blacks in the Reconstruction of Texas,” Journal of Negro History 66 (Winter 1981). Odom Family Trust, “Shankleville, Odom House SBR National Register of Historic Places Registration Application,” Government. Texas Historical Commission National Register Program (January 2012). Richard Orton, Upshaws of County Line: An American Family (Denton: University of North Texas Press, 2014). Bernadette Pruitt, The Other Great Migration: The Movement of Rural African Americans to Houston, 1900–1941 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2013). Andrea R. Roberts, “‘Until the Lord Come Get Me, It Burn Down, Or the Next Storm Blow It Away’: The Aesthetics of Freedom in African American Vernacular Homestead Preservation,” In Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum, 26 (2019). Andrea Roberts and Mohammad Javad Biazar, “Black Placemaking in Texas: Sonic and Social Histories of Newton and Jasper County Freedom Colonies,” Current Research in Digital History 2 (2019) (https://doi.org/10.31835/crdh.2019.06), accessed October 6, 2020. Andrea Roberts and Mohammed Biazar, “The Texas Freedom Colonies Atlas,” Esri StoryMap, Texas Freedom Colonies Atlas & Study, A Black Settlement Database (2020) (https://arcg.is/09vnS5), accessed October 6, 2020. Andrea R. Roberts and Mohammed J. Biazar, “The Texas Freedom Colonies Atlas & Study,” Digital Humanities ArcGIS StoryMap, (July 2018) (https://arcg.is/09vnS5), accessed October 6, 2020. Andrea Roberts and Grace Kelly, “Remixing as Praxis: Arnstein’s Ladder through the Grassroots Preservationist’s Lens,” Journal of the American Planning Association (2019) (https://doi.org/10.1080/01944363.2019.1622439), accessed October 6, 2020. Andrea Roberts and Melina Matos, “Adaptive Liminality: Bridging and Bonding Social Capital between Urban and Rural Black Meccas,” Journal of Urban Affairs (https://doi.org/10.1080/07352166.2020.1722030), accessed October 6, 2020. Loren Schweninger, Black Property Owners in the South, 1790–1915 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997). Thad Sitton and James H. Conrad, Freedom Colonies: Independent Black Texans in the Time of Jim Crow (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005).
- African Americans
- Late Nineteenth-Century Texas
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Thad Sitton Revised by Andrea Roberts , Grace Kelly , and Schuyler Carter , “Freedmen's Settlements,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed October 27, 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/freedmens-settlements.
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