Alwyn Barr, Black Texans: A History of African Americans in Texas, 1528–1995 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996). Kenneth L. Brown, Carol McDavid, Rachel Feit, and Fred L. McGhee, “African American Archaeology in Texas: A Planning Document,” June 1, 2013, Texas Historical Commission Staff Files. Robert D. Bullard, Invisible Houston: The Black Experience in Boom and Bust (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1987). Maria Franklin and Nedra Lee, “African American Descendants, Community Outreach, and the Ransom and Sarah Williams Farmstead Project,” Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage 7 (2020). Historical Marker Files, Texas Historical Commission, Austin. Carol McDavid, “When Is ‘Gone’ Gone? Archaeology, Gentrification, and Competing Narratives about Freedmen’s Town, Houston,” Historical Archaeology 45 (2011). Michelle M. Mears, African American Settlement Patterns in Austin, Texas, 1865–1928 (M.A. thesis, Baylor University, 2001). Merline Pitre, “A Note on the Historiography of Blacks in the Reconstruction of Texas,” Journal of Negro History 66 (Winter 1981). Odom Family Trust, “Shankleville, Odom House SBR National Register of Historic Places Registration Application,” Government. Texas Historical Commission National Register Program (January 2012). Richard Orton, Upshaws of County Line: An American Family (Denton: University of North Texas Press, 2014). Bernadette Pruitt, The Other Great Migration: The Movement of Rural African Americans to Houston, 1900–1941 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2013). Andrea R. Roberts, “‘Until the Lord Come Get Me, It Burn Down, Or the Next Storm Blow It Away’: The Aesthetics of Freedom in African American Vernacular Homestead Preservation,” In Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum, 26 (2019). Andrea Roberts and Mohammad Javad Biazar, “Black Placemaking in Texas: Sonic and Social Histories of Newton and Jasper County Freedom Colonies,” Current Research in Digital History 2 (2019) (https://doi.org/10.31835/crdh.2019.06), accessed October 6, 2020. Andrea Roberts and Mohammed Biazar, “The Texas Freedom Colonies Atlas,” Esri StoryMap, Texas Freedom Colonies Atlas & Study, A Black Settlement Database (2020) (https://arcg.is/09vnS5), accessed October 6, 2020. Andrea R. Roberts and Mohammed J. Biazar, “The Texas Freedom Colonies Atlas & Study,” Digital Humanities ArcGIS StoryMap, (July 2018) (https://arcg.is/09vnS5), accessed October 6, 2020. Andrea Roberts and Grace Kelly, “Remixing as Praxis: Arnstein’s Ladder through the Grassroots Preservationist’s Lens,” Journal of the American Planning Association (2019) (https://doi.org/10.1080/01944363.2019.1622439), accessed October 6, 2020. Andrea Roberts and Melina Matos, “Adaptive Liminality: Bridging and Bonding Social Capital between Urban and Rural Black Meccas,” Journal of Urban Affairs (https://doi.org/10.1080/07352166.2020.1722030), accessed October 6, 2020. Loren Schweninger, Black Property Owners in the South, 1790–1915 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997). Thad Sitton and James H. Conrad, Freedom Colonies: Independent Black Texans in the Time of Jim Crow (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005).
- African Americans
- Late Nineteenth-Century Texas
The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.
Thad Sitton Revised by Andrea Roberts , Grace Kelly , and Schuyler Carter , “Freedmen's Settlements,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed May 22, 2022, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/freedmens-settlements.
Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.
For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
- July 17, 2007
- February 1, 2022
This entry belongs to the following Handbook Special Projects: