Indian rock art, consisting of pictographs (drawings or paintings) and petroglyphs (carvings) made by Indians-both prehistoric and historic-exists in more than 250 known sites in Texas. The rock art is usually found on cave walls, in natural rockshelters along rivers or streams, or on ledges and cliff faces. There are probably a great number of sites that have not been discovered, but those examined, many containing numerous paintings or engravings, represent a wide variety of styles in different locations, reflecting many divergent Indian cultures. The earliest organized studies of rock art in Texas began in the 1930s. Archeologist A. T. Jackson studied Indian rock art throughout the state for eight years and published an extensive record titled Picture-Writing of Texas Indians (1938). From 1934 to 1942 artist Olea Forrest Kirkland and his wife Lula visited about eighty sites and copied in watercolors various examples of rock art. Rock-art sites have been found near known Indian campgrounds; others have been found in isolated, remote areas, seemingly far from ancient or modern settlements. The artwork ranges in size from one inch to eighteen feet in height and is found anywhere from the ground level to many feet above ground. Some paintings were drawn in places that could only have been reached with the use of scaffolding of some sort. Pigments were made from powdered minerals, sometimes mixed with animal fats, and consisted largely of earth tones. Black and red were the most commonly used colors, but white, yellow, orange, and brown were also used, sometimes singly but most often in combination. Subjects ranged from the whole human figure or just hands or feet, to animals of all kinds-deer, mountain lions, buffalo, snakes, and birds. Sun symbols, various kinds of weather, trees, weapons, and geometric shapes were also drawn. In later times Spanish and other non-Indian figures were pictured. The purposes or meanings in the drawings cannot be positively determined, but some are clearly religious or ceremonial in nature, depicting what appear to be images of shamans. Some obviously show events occurring in a tribe or in the life of an individual, often hunting or warfare. Maps, dancing scenes, and tallies of some sort are recorded, as are stories or myths, and a few scenes appear to be intentionally humorous.
Only one region in Texas exemplifies a rock-art tradition among one group of Indians over an extended period of time. Here, at the junction of the Pecos River with the Rio Grande, and the Devils River with the Rio Grande in Val Verde County, the collection of rock art known as the lower Pecos River style suggests an indigenous effort. The collection of paintings shows a beginning and development, a slow refining in style, and an eventual dying out-all in a geographically limited area that was seemingly isolated from outside artistic influences. Evidences of human habitation in the area date back perhaps 10,000 years. It is estimated that the full range of styles of rock art along the lower Pecos-including and beyond the lower Pecos River style-was done from between 3000 to 2000 B.C. to about A.D. 1880. The Pecos River style per se falls in the period of 2000 to 1000 B.C. These pictographs are considered to be among the finest in the world and constitute possibly the largest collection of pictographs in North America. The pictographs of the lower Pecos River have been categorized into several distinctive styles. The Archaic-age Pecos River style generally consists of scenes incorporating several colors and depicting stylized figures as well as humans. The Red Linear style of the Late Archaic Period is characterized by very small dark red pictographs, often depicting humans as stick figures. The Red Monochrome style of the Late Prehistoric Period incorporates red, reddish-orange, and yellow colors and depicts solid human and animal figures. The Historic style is the most recent form, and drawings in this style show European influence.
Farther west, in El Paso County, the rock art in Hueco Tanks State Historical Park reflects a completely different culture. Though not unified in a distinctive style, these paintings, found in centuries-old natural cisterns, show the influence of the forebears of the Puebloan Indians (who lived in Arizona and New Mexico, but whose influence reached into far western Texas). Paintings similar to those at Hueco Tanks can be found in the Texas Panhandle in at least three locations: at Alibates Creek, near Palo Duro Canyon, and around the Canadian River valley at Rocky Dell in Oldham County. Characteristic subjects of paintings at these sites are masks, shield figures, and blanket designs, probably painted by the Mescalero Apache Indians between A.D. 900 and 1500, though influenced by the older Puebloan culture.
There are numerous other rock-art sites across Texas, but the work seems not to be the result of any consistent rock-art heritage such as that found in the Pecos River and Puebloan pictograph sites. Many are more recent works and are possibly the result of the influence of the ancient art on later Indians. Paintings are found throughout the Big Bend area, for instance, that are not related to the Pecos River style. Among the Big Bend sites are Rock Pile Ranch, Fort Davis, Lewis Canyon (the one site that is mostly petroglyphs), Study Butte, and Comanche Springs. Other places where rock paintings have been found include Nolan County, Winkler County, Paint Rock (near the Concho River in northern Concho County), and Lehmann Rock Shelter (northwest of Fredericksburg). Most of these rock-art sites cannot be attributed to any one Indian group, and probably the drawings were done or added to by many different individuals. The paintings and petroglyphs vary in age; some are estimated to be thousands of years old, while others date only from the 1700s and 1800s and are of Plains origins. In some cases the figures represented are an indication of the relative age of the rock art. For example, the absence or inclusion of horses, guns, missions, and White men (and the sequence in which they appear) helps in dating the relatively modern drawings. These more recent drawings, however-which are often mixed in with the older work-along with vandalism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, have made age determinations more difficult.
Vandalism and natural weathering of the rock are two of the most common causes of rock-art deterioration. Also, the impoundment of Amistad Reservoir in 1968 inundated an unknown number of important paintings as well as many other significant archeological sites. A secondary effect of reservoir construction was the accessibility it granted to sites previously protected by the rugged terrain of the lower Pecos River and the Rio Grande. In the 1990s the emphasis on the recording and interpretation of rock art expanded to include conservation and public education. The call for preservation, first voiced by A. T. Jackson and Forrest Kirkland in the 1930s, had been reiterated over the years, but only tentative recommendations had been generated by the Seminole Canyon State Historical Park master plan. A group of concerned private citizens formed the nonprofit Rock Art Foundation, Incorporated, to forward the goals of preservation, public education, and research. A program of site management, restoration, and protection was launched in 1995 on the Pecos River; it is estimated, however, that testing of methods and techniques will last well into the twenty-first century. At the same time, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department initiated a graffiti-eradication program at Hueco Tanks.
In 1967 The Rock Art of Texas Indians presented the first opportunity for the interested public to see Forrest Kirkland's watercolor renditions of the rock art, now curated at the Texas Memorial Museum. The accompanying commentary by W. W. Newcomb, Jr., was a landmark interpretive study that first suggested that the Pecos River-style pictographs were shamanic art. Subsequently, Ancient Texans: Rock Art and Lifeways along the Lower Pecos (1986) offered a sampling of photographer Jim Zintgraff's massive collection of color prints from the Pecos area. Text by Harry Shafer and a number of contributing authors provided a detailed description of the material culture and art. Jim Zintgraff and Solveig Turpin then collaborated on Pecos River Rock Art: A Photographic Essay (1991), a larger sample of Zintgraff's works as interpreted by Turpin in the context of a widespread religious tradition. This hypothesis is further developed in Shamanism and Rock Art in North America, edited by Turpin and published by the Rock Art Foundation. The burgeoning interest in rock art has seen an increase in volunteer participation in its preservation, including the formation of a recording task group within the Texas Archeological Society. The Witte Museum in San Antonio has a permanent exhibit devoted to the rock art and its context. Articles and reports on rock art from the Big Bend, the Panhandle, the Lower Pecos, and other areas of Texas are featured at professional meetings and made available to the public in magazines, journals, newspapers, and television documentaries. Guided tours of selected rock-art sites are available at Seminole Canyon State Historical Park, Hueco Tanks, Devils River State Natural Area, and Big Bend Ranch State Natural Area, all managed by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department.