The Handbook of Texas is free-to-use thanks to the support of readers like you. Support the Handbook today.

Font size: A / A reset

Llanos, Francisco de (unknown–unknown)

Robert S. Weddle Biography

Francisco de Llanos was a career officer of the Armada de Barlovento in the late seventeenth century. In September 1685 he was captain of the armada's 335-ton frigate La Honhon, when the fleet engaged French pirates fresh from the rape of Campeche. The armada captured defectors from the La Salle expedition who disclosed the French plan to plant a colony near the mouth of a large river (the Mississippi) that René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, had descended from Canada in 1682. The fleet failed to pursue and capture the hated pirate leader Laurens de Graff, and for that Llanos and several other officers of the armada were disciplined. Llanos was suspended from duty for two years, after which he was restored to duty as capitán de mar y guerra and given command of the frigate Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación. In 1690 he conducted the Llanos-Cárdenas expedition to Espíritu Santo (San Bernardo or Matagorda) Bay on the Texas coast.

Herbert Eugene Bolton, "The Location of La Salle's Colony on the Gulf of Mexico," Mississippi Valley Historical Review 2 (September 1915); rpt., Southwestern Historical Quarterly 27 (January 1924). Bibiano Torres Ramírez, La Armada de Barlovento (Seville: Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos, 1981).

Time Periods:

  • Spanish Texas

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.

Robert S. Weddle, “Llanos, Francisco de,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed September 22, 2020,

Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

This entry belongs to the following Handbook Special Projects: