James Long, leader of the Long expedition, was born in Culpeper County, Virginia, probably in 1793. He was taken by his parents to Kentucky and then to Tennessee. He joined the United States Army to serve as a surgeon in the War of 1812 and after the battle of New Orleans went to Natchez, Mississippi, practiced medicine at Port Gibson, and, at the suggestion of his wife, Jane Herbert Wilkinson Long, bought a plantation near Vicksburg. In 1817 he was associated with W. W. Walker in the merchandising business. Two years later the Adams-Onís Treaty aroused such strong opposition in Natchez that prominent citizens planned a filibustering expedition to conquer Texas and placed Long in command. After the final surrender of the expedition, Long was imprisoned for a time in San Antonio and in Monterrey, Nuevo León. He went to Mexico City in March 1822 to plead his case before Agustín de Iturbide, but on April 8, 1822, he was shot and killed by a guard. The shooting was said to be an accident, but there was some evidence that the guard had been hired by José Félix Trespalacios to kill Long.