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Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe Pueblo

Julia Cauble Smith General Entry

Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe was located at La Junta de los Ríos at the site of present Ojinaga, Chihuahua. On December 27 and 28, 1683, the expedition of Juan Domínguez de Mendoza camped at the pueblo and called the site Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe. It was the largest of eight pueblos at La Junta. Five hundred fifty people were living there on June 3, 1715, when Maj. Juan Antonio de Trasviña Retis arrived. Trasviña, thirty soldiers, and an Indian party were sent down the Río Conchos with two priests to survey the pueblos. They found two groups, the Polacmes and the Cíbolos, living at the Guadalupe pueblo. Each group had a separate plaza, and the pueblo was protected by a defensive stockade. The Indians had adopted European dress, language, and tools. Ojinaga dates its founding from June 3, 1715, the date of Trasviña Retis's arrival. Governor Pedro de Rábago y Terán of Coahuila arrived at Guadalupe on December 18, 1747. The objective of his expedition was to reestablish the six abandoned missions at La Junta and to establish a presidio for protection of the missionaries and Christians. The Spaniards found 172 Indians living at the surviving Guadalupe mission. Fray Francisco Sánchez, the only missionary at Guadalupe, rang the mission bells to greet them and arranged for them to camp in the main plaza. Capt. Joseph Idoiaga and his expedition were also sent to Guadalupe in 1747 to help build the presidio. Although the Spanish were interested in establishing the presidio, it was not built until Capt. Alonso Rubín de Celis arrived at Guadalupe on December 24, 1759. Celis built the fort between San Francisco de los Julimes and Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe pueblos and completed it before June 22, 1760. In the fall of 1766 the presidio was moved to Julimes on the Río Conchos, but in 1772 the king ordered the fort returned to its original site near Guadalupe. The area of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe Pueblo has been continuously inhabited since 1500 B.C. It continues today as Ojinaga, Chihuahua.

Howard G. Applegate and C. Wayne Hanselka, La Junta de los Ríos del Norte y Conchos (Southwestern Studies 41 [El Paso: Texas Western Press, 1974]). Carlos E. Castañeda, Our Catholic Heritage in Texas (7 vols., Austin: Von Boeckmann-Jones, 1936–58; rpt., New York: Arno, 1976). Barry Wade Hutcheson, The Trans-Pecos: A Historical Survey and Guide to Historic Sites (M.A. thesis, Texas Tech University, 1969). Robert S. Weddle, San Juan Bautista: Gateway to Spanish Texas (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1968).


  • Exploration
  • Communities and Jurisdictions
  • Peoples
  • Native American
  • Religion
  • Catholic
  • Architecture
  • Missions
  • Presidios
  • Pueblos

Time Periods:

  • Spanish Texas

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.

Julia Cauble Smith, “Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe Pueblo,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed October 20, 2020,

Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

This entry belongs to the following Handbook Special Projects: