Pine Island is near Farm Road 359 a mile south of U.S. Highway 290 and the Southern Pacific Railroad five miles southeast of Hempstead and five miles southwest of Waller in Waller County. It was formed by the 1880s, when Pine Island Baptist Church began. A school was in operation by 1893; in 1896 seventy-eight children attended classes. The Pine Island School District was consolidated with the Waller Independent School District in 1928. The church was the main focus for community activity. By 1979 Pine Island's population had grown to 200. The community incorporated in 1980, and in 1988 it had 425 residents and two small factories. In 2000 the population was 849.