Quapaw Treaty

By: John G. Johnson

Type: General Entry

Published: June 1, 1995

Updated: January 14, 2021

By the treaty between the Quapaw Nation and the United States, made on November 15, 1824, the Quapaws ceded their ancestral land in Arkansas and agreed to move to Caddo territory south of the Red River to become part of the Caddo Nation. They were given land on Bayou Treache, an area subject to yearly flooding, and lost their crops year after year. Furthermore they were never accepted by the Caddos. Part of the Quapaws returned to Arkansas and attempted to regain part of their territory and assimilate with the White settlers. This effort proved futile, and in another treaty in 1833 they ceded the land on Bayou Treache and were assigned land west of the Missouri state line. Of those Quapaws who remained in Texas, part lived with the Cherokees and were involved in the treaty with the Cherokees in 1846, and part were allied with the Comanches and signed the treaty with the Comanche and allied bands, also in 1846. Some Quapaws also signed a treaty with the Republic of Texas in February 1836.

W. David Baird, "The Reduction of a People: The Quapaw Removal, 1824–1834," Red River Valley Historical Review 1 (Spring 1974). Charles J. Kappler, comp. and ed., Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, Vol. 2 (Washington: GPO, 1904; rpt., as Indian Treaties, 1778–1883, New York: Interland, 1972).

  • Peoples
  • Native American

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.

John G. Johnson, “Quapaw Treaty,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed May 21, 2022, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/quapaw-treaty.

Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

June 1, 1995
January 14, 2021