The Handbook of Texas is free-to-use thanks to the support of readers like you. Support the Handbook today.

Font size: A / A reset

Support Texas History Now

Join TSHA to support quality Texas history programs and receive exclusive benefits.

Become a TSHA Member Today »


Jeff Carroll General Entry

With the motto "The great appear great to us only because we are on our kneesā€”Let us arise," The Rebel began weekly publication as the state paper representing the Socialist party in Hallettsville, Lavaca County in 1911. Thomas A. Hickey and E. O. Meitzen owned and operated the Socialist Printing Company, which produced The Rebel. Hickey and Meitzen also published the socialist paper New Era, which was published concurrently with The Rebel. By 1912 the circulation of The Rebel reached 17,000 statewide, and this increased to 23,000 before World War I. In 1917 publication was halted by government order.

Paul C. Boethel, The History of Lavaca County (San Antonio: Naylor, 1936; rev. ed., Austin: Von Boeckmann-Jones, 1959).


  • Journalism
  • Agriculture
  • Labor
  • Politics and Government
  • Writers, Authors, Publications, and Literature
  • Publications, Journals, and Magazines
  • Newspapers

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.

Jeff Carroll, “Rebel,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed October 28, 2020,

Published by the Texas State Historical Association.