Scott and White Memorial Hospital in Temple was established by Arthur Carroll Scott of Gainesville, Texas, who moved to Temple in 1892 as chief surgeon for the Santa Fe Railroad hospital, and Raleigh R. White of Cameron, who became Scott's partner in 1897. In 1904 they established their hospital, first in a converted house and shortly thereafter in a former Catholic convent, which became the nucleus of a collection of thirty-one buildings in the fifty-nine years the hospital remained at the location. In addition, they also established a school of nursing there and continued to provide services for Santa Fe workers. The hospital was first called Temple Sanitarium, but in 1922 the name was changed to Scott and White Hospital. White died in 1917, and Scott stayed at the hospital until his death in 1940. Other early doctors were Olin F. Gober (1905), and Claudia Potter (1906). The original partnership grew into one of the five largest private group medical practices in the United States. Doctors Marcell W. Sherwood and George V. Brindley, Sr., became partners and cofounders of the Scott, Sherwood, and Brindley Foundation, which now owns the hospital's physical assets.
The hospital was converted to a nonprofit hospital foundation by its charter of December 23, 1949. In December 1963 it moved to its present plant, a 354-bed hospital and clinic of 880,000 square feet. In 1993 the complex consisted of over a million square feet, including a magnetic-resonance-imaging building, dialysis treatment center, and cancer prevention and treatment center. The hospital has pioneered group practice, with private medical specialists working as teams, for the Southwest. It has trained professional nurses since 1904, and it funds staff physicians and scientists for special research projects and scientific papers. The hospital foundation is guided by a seventeen-member board of eleven nonmedical members and six doctors. In 1993 more than 800,000 patients registered annually, and the staff included more than 375 physicians and scientists and more than 5,000 other employees. Scott and White satellite clinics operate in Killeen, Belton, Moody, Hewitt, Gatesville, Waco, Taylor, McGregor, Bellmead, and College Station. In 1979 Scott and White and the Olin E. Teague Veterans' Center became the teaching hospitals for Texas A&M University College of Medicine. Students complete two years of clinical study in Temple, and the entire Scott and White professional staff are faculty of the college. Scott and White also operates a health maintenance organization called the Scott and White Health Plan. The former Santa Fe Memorial Hospital merged with Scott and White Memorial Hospital on July 5, 1983, and the name was changed to Scott and White Santa Fe Center, which houses alcohol and drug rehabilitation facilities, geriatric programs, and the Family Medicine Clinic, in addition to the other hospital units.