The Sixteenth Texas Cavalry Regiment was organized at Dallas in the spring of 1862 and was mustered into service in mid-April. The Sixteenth Texas Cavalry primarily operated in the Trans-Mississippi and was involved in engagements in Louisiana and Arkansas. The original field officers included Col. William Fitzhugh, Col. Edward P. Gregg, and Lt. Col. William W. Diamond. The unit consisted of ten companies of nearly 1,000 men primarily from Collin, Cooke, and Grayson counties. The regiment was known by several alternate names including Briscoe’s Cavalry, Gregg’s Cavalry, Fitzhugh’s Cavalry, Diamond’s Cavalry, Daugherty’s Cavalry, and "The Bloody Sixteenth."
The Sixteenth Texas Cavalry participated in five major engagements from December 1862 through June 1864. The unit was one of the first units in what became Walker's Texas Division to engage in combat near Little Rock, Arkansas, in the spring of 1862. They fought at the battle of Cotton Plant, Arkansas, on July 7, 1862. On September 30, 1862, the unit was attached to the Second Brigade of the Second Division in the Trans-Mississippi Department. The regiment was ordered to dismount in July 1862, following reorganization, and many of the men were disappointed with the decision and loss of property. The men of the Lone Star State considered themselves natural equestrians, and slogging through dust and mud on foot was not the Texas way of fighting. During 1863 the unit fought in Arkansas and Louisiana at several engagements including Steele’s expedition against Little Rock.
At the battle of Milliken’s Bend in June 1863, the unit lost nineteen killed, forty-seven wounded, and one missing. The Sixteenth Texas Dismounted Cavalry lined up on the left side of Richmond Road and were forced to cross ditches, stumble through vines and briars, and work through gaps in a line of hedges where Union soldiers were entrenched. Combat at the hedge was an intense and rare scene of hand-to-hand fighting with bayonets and clubbed muskets. One Union captain recalled, “…one member of the regiment and a rebel met and at the same instant plunged their bayonets into one another, and both fell dead on the works, with their bayonets in that position . . . it was a very hot place.” Pvt. Andrew Jackson Lucas recalled, “Some of the time we were hard pressed for rations, especially at Milliken’s Bend and Saline River. We had but little in the way of camp equipage and suffered much from rain and cold.”
In July 1863 the unit marched nearly 300 miles across northern and central Louisiana. On November 10, 1863, they were attached to McCulloch’s, Flournoy’s, Waterhouse’s, and Scurry’s brigades in the District of Western Louisiana. The Sixteenth Texas Cavalry Regiment participated in battles at Mansfield on April 8, Pleasant Hill on April 9, and Jenkins Ferry on April 30. Private Lucas recalled,” we overtook him (General Steele) at Jenkins’s Ferry, on Saline River, where we had a hard fight and lost two Generals, Scurry and Randell, after which Gen. Waterhouse took command.” The Sixteenth Texas Cavalry spent most of January and February 1864 at Camp Glenwood, Louisiana. Pvt. J. B. Briscoe recalled, “I was detailed and sent back to Texas to gather beef for the Confederate Government in 1864. . . .My battles were against hunger. We were often fed on corn in the shuck, sometimes wheat bran alone, and sometimes bacon alone.” On December 31, 1864, the unit was attached to the Second Texas Infantry of the First Corps in the Trans-Mississippi.
In March 1865 the Sixteenth Texas Cavalry Regiment was ordered to Camp Groce in Hempstead, Texas, where they disbanded in May 1865, following news of surrender of Confederate forces in the eastern theater. The unit officially surrendered with Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith on May 26, 1865. The Texas Sons of Confederate Veterans owns and has preserved one of the battle flags from the Sixteenth Texas Cavalry Regiment from the Red River campaign.