In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the Suma (Sume, Suna, Zuma) Indians ranged over a territory that extended from the vicinity of present El Paso westward across northwestern Chihuahua into northeastern Sonora. They entered various Spanish missions near El Paso and Casas Grandes. The Sumas slowly declined in numbers and several remnants seem to have been absorbed by various local Apache groups in the late eighteenth century. A few Suma individuals were still living south of El Paso in the late nineteenth century. The affiliations of the Sumas remain in doubt. Most writers profess to see little difference between the Sumas and the Jumanos. J. D. Forbes has recently argued that the Sumas were Athabascans, but he seems to have placed too much emphasis on their late association with Apaches.
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- Native American
- Tribes (Other)
The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.
Thomas N. Campbell, “Suma Indians,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed October 21, 2020, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/suma-indians.
Published by the Texas State Historical Association.