Vicente Tarín, soldier and Indian commissioner, son of Pedro Nolasco Tarín and María Bernarda Araújo, was born around 1767 probably in the Villa de San Gerónimo, Chihuahua, México. He served as a lancer during the latter Spanish colonial period, later becoming a Republican insurgent leader. Tarín had served in the military for twenty years and was a sergeant in the Second Flying Company of San Carlos de Parras when it arrived at San Antonio de Valero Mission in 1803. While there, he distinguished himself as a formidable Indian fighter and was instrumental in recovering stolen livestock on numerous occasions. By 1807 he had been appointed to the position of second alférez, due in part to his exemplary record. Tarín's first wife, María (or Mónica) Luján, died in 1796. He remained a widower until 1810, when he married Juana Isidora Leal, daughter of Joaquín Leal. According to civil records they had six sons, although subsequent research and DNA testing of descendant lines has shown that Tarín may have been the father of only two of them.
Tarín was made a second lieutenant and commander of the Parras Company by 1811, while concurrently holding a position in the Presidial Company of San Antonio de Béxar. During the Casas Revolt of that same year, Tarín was singled out as the one most capable of apprehending the criminals of that revolt because of the diligent manner in which he executed his duties. Having joined the insurgent army of the Gutiérrez-Magee expedition by 1813, Tarín, a captain, participated in the disastrous battle of Medina on August 18. With the Republicans' crushing defeat, Tarín was forced to seek refuge in Louisiana. By 1815 Tarín was forming his own company while still in Natchitoches. His ventures into the province included bartering guns and other goods with the Comanches, continuing the seditionary alliance that had been established with them. Tarín was a member of James Long's Supreme Council when it issued its declaration of independence in Nacogdoches on June 23, 1819. He signed his name to the document as secretary. Having attained independence in 1821 the Mexican government, in an effort to establish peace with the Indians, appointed Tarín and José Francisco Ruiz as Indian commissioners. Negotiations began that resulted in the signing of a treaty in Mexico City by the Lipan chiefs. Between May 1822, when Tarín returned from a successful diplomatic trip among the Comanches, and October of that year, Tarín and all but one member of his company were killed in an American Indian attack in northern Texas.