Thaddeus A. Taylor, physician, was born on July 21, 1875, in Prosperity, South Carolina, the son of Monroe and Kelline Taylor. He attended public schools and St. Luke's Academy in South Carolina and received a medical degree from Memphis Hospital Medical College in Tennessee (1901). He began practicing medicine in Lufkin, Texas, in 1908, specializing in anesthesia and internal medicine. He invented an oxygen tent that was adopted as standard equipment in naval hospitals during World War II. He was the author of several publications dealing with oxygen therapy. Taylor was twice elected president of the Angelina County Medical Society. He served as a member of the House of Delegates of the Texas Medical Association (1930–43; 1949–51). He was also an active member of the American Medical Association. He served as president of the Lufkin Independent School District, as a member of the city council and the Lufkin Chamber of Commerce, as a member of the board of managers of Angelina County Hospital, and as a member of the board of directors of the Guaranty State Bank, the Angelina Hotel, and the Taylor Hardware Company. He was also a longtime member and elder of the Presbyterian Church. Taylor married Leona Fisher, and they had three sons. In 1946 he married Vernon Jordan Ware in Dallas. Taylor died in Lufkin on July 17, 1952.