Throckmorton, the county seat of Throckmorton County, is on U.S. highways 380 and 183/283, in the central part of the county. It became the county seat when the county was organized in 1879. Early businesses included a Mr. Tadley's store and a cafe and stage stand run by C. A. (Alex) Housley. Throckmorton County only had a population of 124 by 1890. Yet as the county seat Throckmorton was assured of having most of the county's population and businesses. Industries have included gins and flour and feed mills. The population of Throckmorton doubled between 1910 and 1920, as farmers took up land. By 1936 it reached 1,135 and remained stable until the mid-1980s. The town had 1,319 residents in 1950, 1,299 in 1960, 1,105 in 1970, and 1,174 in 1980. The population was 1,036 in 1990 and dropped to 905 in 2000. The town is incorporated and serves as the market and manufacturing center for the county's oil and agricultural business.