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Tixemu Indians

Thomas N. Campbell General

This name appears on a list of tribes (recorded in 1683 at El Paso) known to the Jumano Indians, some of whom traveled extensively in the interior of Texas. Unfortunately the location of the Tixemu Indians is not given. The Tishims, represented by at least one individual at San Antonio de Valero Mission of San Antonio in the middle eighteenth century, were probably the Tixemus known to the Jumanos. If so, a Tonkawan linguistic affiliation is suggested by the fact that a Tishim woman at San Antonio was married to a Yojuane Indian. The Yojuanes were Tonkawans, and several other names on the Jumano list are identifiable as Tonkawan. The similarity of Titskan, the Tonkawa name for themselves, to both Tixemu and Tishim also suggests the same relationship. J. R. Swanton considered the Tishim Indians to be either Coahuiltecan or Tonkawan in language.

Charles W. Hackett, ed., Pichardo's Treatise on the Limits of Louisiana and Texas (4 vols., Austin: University of Texas Press, 1931–46). Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). J. R. Swanton, Linguistic Material from the Tribes of Southern Texas and Northeastern Mexico (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1940).


  • Peoples
  • Native American
  • Tribes (Other)

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.

Thomas N. Campbell, “Tixemu Indians,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed October 01, 2020,

Published by the Texas State Historical Association.