Trementina Indians

By: H. Allen Anderson

Type: General Entry

Published: 1976

Updated: September 1, 1995

The Trementina (Nementina) Indians ranged the Panhandle of Texas and eastern New Mexico from the Canadian River area south during the late seventeenth century. They seem to have been an early Lipan Apache group. The name is a Spanish term for "turpentine," but how it came to be applied to these people is a mystery. The Trementinas were either closely linked with the Limitas (or Faraones), or were the same people; Spanish records are unclear on that matter. In some contemporary documents both names were sometimes equated with Cipayne, the name from which Lipan probably evolved. The Trementina Indians were mentioned among the Plains Apache groups that Capt. Jean de Ulibarri visited in 1706 and the participants in the raids on Taos and Picuris pueblos in 1715. They were probably among those who merged with the Mescalero Apaches after the Comanche intrusion into the Llano Estacado later in the eighteenth century.

José M. Espinosa, Crusaders of the Rio Grande: The Story of Don Diego de Vargas and the Reconquest and Refounding of New Mexico (Chicago: Institute of Jesuit History, 1942). Albert H. Schroeder, A Study of the Apache Indians: The Mescalero Apaches, Part III, Vol. 1 (New York: Garland, 1974). John Upton Terrell, The Plains Apache (New York: Crowell, 1975). Alfred B. Thomas, After Coronado: Spanish Exploration Northeast of New Mexico, 1696–1717 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1935).


  • Peoples
  • Native American
  • Tribes (Other)

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.

H. Allen Anderson, “Trementina Indians,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed October 26, 2021,

Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

September 1, 1995