The Twin Sisters were two iron cannons that were used by Sam Houston’s forces at the battle of San Jacinto. The original pair, manufactured in Cincinnati, have since been confused with other pairs of cannons, and various sources have described the Twin Sisters as four-pounders and six-pounders—a feature that has been the subject of debate between researchers. The artillery pieces’ path through history in the decades after the Texas Revolution is nebulous and continues to fuel discussion among scholars and history buffs.
By October 1835 the Texans faced an ever growing threat from Mexican forces to tighten their control over Texas. Due to the warlike atmosphere, committees of safety were assigned, and Stephen F. Austin, after returning from the long detention in Mexico, was named commander of the Texas forces. With Gen. Martín Perfecto de Cos’s army arrival in September and the subsequent battle of Gonzales occurring on October 2, news of the conflict spread throughout Texas and led to further war preparations. William Francis “Picayune” Smith, a Brazos River trader located in the Tenoxtitlan area of Burleson County, was enlisted as an agent in a “secret service” for the Texas cause. The mission was to raise funding for the forging and supply of two iron field pieces from the “Friends of Texas” supporters in Cincinnati, Ohio. Departing in mid-October from Coles Settlement in Washington County, Smith arrived in Cincinnati just prior to November 11. The Cincinnati Republican on November 11 announced his arrival and the proposal for a meeting at the courthouse on November 12. Smith made his case for the cause of Texas and appealed to the citizens of Cincinnati to aid him in “raising funds to purchase a pair of field pieces to take to Texas….”
Local attorney Edward Woodruff immediately established committees by wards of the city. Key citizens and city leaders involved included William Corry, Pulaski Smith, David T. Disney, Robert T. Lytle, Nicholas Clopper, Henry Tatem, Benjamin Chase, Dr. Daniel Drake, and Israel Ludlow. Cincinnati was also the home of David Burnet’s older brothers, Mayor Isaac Burnet and Judge Jacob Burnet, who arranged use of the courthouse for the meetings that were held on November 12 and 17. Lytle on November 17 offered multiple resolutions, and all resolutions were unanimously adopted, including the following key resolution regarding the cannons:
Resolved, That we approve of and recommend to the citizen[s] of this meeting a plan by which the citizens of Texas shall be supplied through their agent, Mr. Smith, by our contributions, with such an amount of HOLLOW WARE as he may deem sufficient, to contain other provisions by which they shall be filled according to his judgment and sound discretion.
In a handwritten letter, the son of Thomas Stansbury, a Cincinnati merchant, confirmed that the cannons were forged and mounted by the Tatem brothers (Willis and Henry) at the Phoenix Foundry. Stansbury played a key role in negotiating shipment of the cannons after much delay.
At the fifty-year anniversary of the battle of San Jacinto, the Cincinnati Commercial Gazette collected the “memories” of the cannons’ origin. The committee of citizens had ordered “two four-pounders cast and delivered as soon as it was possible to furnish them” for an agreed price of $600. The committee consulted Miles Greenwood as to what kind of shot would be provided, and Greenwood, at his foundry, then cast six barrels of eight ounce iron balls (grape shot) and presented them as his donation. The guns were sent to fire engine manufacturers Benjamin Chase and Jeffrey Seymour for boring of the barrels and then returned to the Tatem brothers.
Committee members David T. Disney, William Curry, and Robert T. Lytle called upon Francis Cassat (also spelled Cassatt and Cassett), a well-known blacksmith and carriage maker, to make carriages for the two guns, and the carriages, “rough but substantial,” were on hand on December 30, 1835. The carriages were painted “a bright red,” and the wheels “a stroke of blue.” The six barrels of grape had already been shipped to the Tatem foundry, and the cannons were then mounted by Cassat and the Tatem brothers. Two heavy carts were used to haul the two gun carriages to the wharf on the river for shipment.
The cannons were finally shipped down the Mississippi on the steamboat Splendid to New Orleans. William Bryan, an agent of the Republic of Texas in New Orleans, took official possession of the guns on March 16, 1836. From New Orleans the guns were placed on the schooner Pennsylvania and taken to Brazoria. According to family tradition, the cannons were named "Twin Sisters" at Brazoria for the twin daughters of Dr. Charles Rice who by coincidence were on board the Pennsylvania when it arrived in Texas and were asked to make a speech presenting the cannons to Texas. One of the sisters, Elizabeth Rice Stapp, in a letter written to Alex Dienst in 1905, credited her father’s friend Lewis Allan for the naming of the cannons. However, the first known use of the name was in a letter from President David G. Burnet to the Texas Committee in Cincinnati on July 22, 1836.
After several unsuccessful attempts to get the cannons to the Texas army under Sam Houston, which was retreating toward the Sabine before the forces of Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Twins finally reached the army at their camp on the Brazos at Bernardo Plantation on April 11, 1836. They were sent from Brazoria to Galveston on the Pennsylvania, then to the mainland aboard the schooner Flash, and to Harrisburg on the sloop Ohio, where they were hauled by B. W. Breeding's oxen to Bernardo. An artillery "corps" was immediately formed to service the guns, the only artillery with the Texas army, and placed under the command of Lt. Col. James Clinton Neill.
San Jacinto veteran John M. Wade, later recorded his personal observation of the guns’ arrival, and his narrative was printed in the February 28, 1878, edition of the Galveston Daily News:
When the pieces were unboxed we found them to contain a pair of iron medium six-pounders, caissons, ramrods, etc. complete. Col. John A. Wharton, who was adjutant general of the army, informed Col. Neil [sic], in the presence of the artillerists, that they were a present from the ladies of Cincinnati, Ohio….
Only nine days later the Twin Sisters saw their first action when the firing of the guns was the first shot heard from the Texas army when the Mexicans approached on April 20 near where Buffalo Bayou emptied into the San Jacinto River. In this fight Neill was wounded, and command of the guns passed to George Washington Hockley. The next day, April 21, 1836, saw the battle of San Jacinto and the securing of fame for the Twin Sisters. That afternoon near the banks of Buffalo Bayou, the Texas army struck at Santa Anna's unsuspecting troops. The Twins were probably near the center of the Texans' line of battle and ten yards in advance of the infantry. Their first shots were fired at a distance of 200 yards, and their fire was credited with helping to throw the Mexican force into confusion and significantly aiding the infantry attack. During this battle the Twins fired handfuls of homemade grape shot, as this was the only ammunition the Texans had for the guns.
John M. Wade, in his 1878 published account, described the grape shot used:
Arrived at Harrisburg, we found the place reduced to ashes; but finding some old tin and debris at a mill, which had been burnt down, we improvised grape and canister shot by filling ten cases with screw nuts and other small pieces of iron, and by cutting bar lead into pieces about three-fourths of an inch in length and sewing them into small bags of bedticking. On the 20th of April...the first shot was fired from the Twin Sisters, loaded with our home-made grape.
Though their most prominent moment in history (San Jacinto) was behind them, after 1836 the Twin Sisters were recorded in several accounts during the next twenty-five years. The Telegraph and Texas Register (of Houston) of August 18, 1838, noted that the “‘two pieces of hollow ware’ styled the ‘twin sisters of San Jacinto’ were brought into this city on Monday last” and were “still in excellent condition.” In 1840 the Twins were moved, along with other military stores, to Austin, where on April 21, 1841, they were fired in celebration of the fifth anniversary of the battle of San Jacinto. When Sam Houston was inaugurated for the second time as president of the Republic of Texas that year, the Twins were fired as Houston kissed the Bible after he took the oath of office.
In 1842 Secretary of War George W. Hockley ordered the Twin Sisters, along with two brass cannons, and the ammunition for all four guns, which remained at Austin to be relocated to San Felipe. He noted, “The carriages and train for these pieces will require some repairs, which could not be completed at Austin for want of means….” The Twins were placed on the summit of President's Hill in Austin to defend the river crossing against an attack by Mexican troops that occupied San Antonio. A July 1843 invoice associated with the Houston Arsenal and the Ordnances Department of the Republic of Texas has led some researchers to conclude that the Twin Sisters were sent to the Houston Arsenal for repairs. The invoice of repair items and costs included painting the gun carriages and, amongst other line items, “to fabricate two 4 pdr. Tompions” and “to fabricate” the “repairs of guns & wood parts of the Twin Sisters, their appointment complete.” Other researchers have asserted that the guns noted as the “Twin Sisters” were actually another pair known as the Cayuga Twins (recently dug up from the mud of Fort Travis) that were refurbished. However, there appears to be consensus that the original Twins were inventoried in Austin later in 1843. Reports of the Twin Sisters being sent to Baton Rouge after Texas was annexed to the United States in 1845 were incorrect.
In the Houston Daily Post of August 22, 1909, noted Judge W. P. Hamblen, one of the longest practicing attorneys in the city of Houston, responded to a series of articles on the Twin Sisters and provided his knowledge and the rarest of actual descriptions of the cannon barrels forged in Cincinnati:
As to the “Twin Sisters,” this is all I know. In 1850, if I remember rightly, on the block of ground where the court house of Galveston now stands the two cannon called the “Twin Sisters” stood. I have understood that they were at Austin; they never were in Houston except one time. They were iron cannon, not of the present pattern sloping from the breech to the muzzle, but large beyond the trunnion and suddenly becoming small to the muzzle. On the side was a plaque, I believe of brass, but I am not so sure of that, upon which was the inscription stated by Dr. [S. O.] Young “presented by the ladies of Cincinnati, Ohio, to the republic of Texas.”
Some researchers have since charged that Hamblen misremembered Young’s statement. S. O. Young, in his book True Stories of Old Houston and Houstonians, recalled that the twin guns on the market square in Houston (not Galveston) were “brass pieces” not iron, with an engraved inscription (not a plaque).
Newspaper reports stated that the Twin Sisters fired a salute at a celebration for the first passenger train on the newly-constructed Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado Railway at Thomas Point on April 21, 1853. Some historians have since speculated that the cannons were two pieces known as the Chambers guns (or Louisiana Twins) that were being delivered to San Antonio in 1853.
With the passage of time, the fate of the Cincinnati Twin Sisters and their use became more difficult to track and has continued to be the subject of much debate and ongoing study. Several divergent views have emerged regarding the Twin Sisters and their role, if any, during the Civil War.
Even before Texas called the Secession Convention, men were beginning to think about preparing for war. Ben McCulloch, recalling his service with the Twin Sisters at San Jacinto and believing that the guns had been sent to Louisiana, thought that these guns should once again be on Texas soil. He wrote to Governor Houston informing him that he thought the Twins were located in Louisiana and should be returned to Texas. Houston agreed and wrote to the United States secretary of war asking for the return of the Twins. Before action could be taken on this matter, however, Texas had seceded from the Union. The Texas Secession Convention appointed a commission to ask Louisiana for the return of the Twin Sisters, but inquiries showed that the cannons had been sold to a foundry in Baton Rouge as scrap iron some years before. Instead of being the Twin Sisters, the cannons sent to Louisiana were two iron six-pounders acquired by Thomas Jefferson Chambers for Texas in 1836. George Williamson, commissioner for Louisiana to the state of Texas, discovered that one of the guns was still at the foundry, although in poor condition, and that the other had been bought by a private citizen in Iberville Parish. Having found the cannons, Williamson asked the Louisiana legislature to purchase and repair them before presenting them to the state of Texas. The Louisianans passed an appropriation of $700 to "procure the guns, mount the same in a handsome manner," and forward them to Texas.
The April 1, 1861, edition of the Baton Rouge Gazette detailed the preparations for what should be called the Louisiana Twin Sisters:
Having brought them together, they were sent to Tunnard’s for the proper mounting and repairing. A look at them will convince anyone that the job could not have fallen into better hands. The carriages are substantially painted and trimmed off to perfection with the necessary chains, rings, and bolts. The guns have been carefully cleaned and lacquered, and now look as though they could again take part in another San Jacinto.…They are neatly inscribed on a brass plate by the repairer, and in a smaller plate appears the name of “W.F. Tunnard, Baton Rouge.”
The Galveston Daily News of April 9 reported: “The Steamship Rusk brought over to-day the two pieces of field artillery, six pounders, known as the ‘Twin Sisters’.…They somehow or other found their way back from Louisiana, where they have been considered as old iron.” The Civilian and Gazette out of Galveston on April 11, 1861, reported, “‘The Twin Sisters’...had a worthy ovation yesterday. They were marched through the principal streets, followed by the volunteer companies and a large crowd of citizens….”
Former Lt. Col. S. T. Fountaine was chief of artillery and ordnance of the District of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona in 1863. In a letter written in Galveston and dated February 23, 1911, he noted that he was satisfied that the two guns at that date were not inventoried. He also remembered seeing these guns in Galveston some time before the evacuation [October 1862]—the carriages were almost worthless. He did not remember that they were ever fired.
Judge William P. Hamblen included the following content from his August 22, 1909, posting:
In 1862 or 1863; at any rate, it was at the time that the Federals captured the city of Galveston [October 1862], the Galveston, Houston and Henderson railroad entering Houston traversed McKinney avenue and the depot was between San Jacinto and Caroline streets. At the time of the said capture as many of the cannon as could be removed were brought by railway to Houston. I remember some large Colombias and Mortars and field pieces, among them being the two iron cannon called the “Twin Sisters”; they were the identical ones I had seen before and the plaque on them was the same. They remained on the square [in Houston] until Galveston was re-captured on the 1st of January, 1863; this is my impression. Since then I have never heard of those two cannon, nor what became of them.
Some historians have asserted that Hamblen’s account appears to corroborate Fountaine’s. and that Hamblen then confirmed that these were the same Twin Sisters that resided in Galveston in 1850, hence the Cincinnati Twin Sisters. Others have argued that Hamblen actually saw the twin cannons known as the Louisiana Twins and that Fountaine saw the Cayuga Twins.
With the re-occupation of the Rio Grande in full effect by Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks, the imminent threat was that the Union Army would sweep up from the Rio Grande and attack San Antonio and then Austin. The situation in San Antonio was desperate. On November 16, 1863, Lt. Col. A. G. Dickinson, in a communication to Capt. Edmund P. Turner, informed General Magruder that there as an expectation of receiving batteries, “there not being one single piece of artillery, heavy or light, at this post.” Dickinson, on November 30, wrote to Maj. Sidney T. Fountaine in Houston of the general dire condition, with some glimmer of hope of obtaining at least some sort of light artillery, hence some light howitzers, and possibly the Twin Sisters. “The Twin Sisters, I am informed, are at or in a camp in the vicinity of Austin. They are in a deplorable condition, and I am fearful could not be used.”
Lt. Charles I. Evans, of Capt. H. H. Christmas’s Light Battery, provided a complete account of the “Twin Sisters” cannons in fall 1863 through late summer 1864, their movements from Austin to San Antonio, including their subsequent marching of the full company with the Twins to Millican, then by rail to Houston, and their final destination of Camp Lubbock at Houston. Colonel Fountaine was requested by Evans to assess the cannons while at Camp Lubbock, Fountaine’s response was that “they were almost entirely worthless in modern warfare,” then gave Evans “two other guns in place of them.” Evans returned to San Antonio in August 1864 and left the Twin Sisters and caissons originating from Austin on the parade ground at Camp Lubbock in Houston.
Further detail on the cannons is included in the letter Charles Evans issued to Ben Stuart in 1909 and published by Alex Dienst in the San Antonio Express on March 23 1913:
As the battery at that time had only two guns—small mountain howitzers—Captain Christmas opened negotiations with Governor Pendleton Murrah to get two guns then at Austin and said by the State officials to be the real Twin Sisters, which were used at the Battle of San Jacinto. This negotiation was successful, and, in pursuance thereof, Lieut. Walter W. Blow went to Austin the fall of 1863 with a detail of men and horses and brought the two guns with caissons to San Antonio. I remember distinctly how the guns looked. There were no brass plates with inscriptions on either of them. They were short iron pieces, not more than five or six feet in length. They had originally been 4-pounders, but had recently been bored out to the size of 6-pounders, and had very recently been remounted on regular United States Army size carriages for 6-pounder field guns. I remember that the carriage were very much out of proportion in size to the size of the guns, being too large for them. On the trail of each piece was a small silver plate with the name “Twin Sisters” engraved in script. This was the only engraving or mark anywhere about them. During the early part of 1864 I talked with several State officials and old residents of Austin about these guns, and no one ever expressed any doubts as to their being the identical guns that were at the Battle of San Jacinto, but it was always taken for granted that they were. I never heard how they got to Austin.
M. A. Sweetman, who was with the 114th Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, in Houston as part of the Union Army of occupation, was then quartered in the Kennedy Building, and noted:
On some vacant ground immediately north and back of the Kennedy building on July 30, 1865, I saw a number of old cannon, one, and perhaps more of large size, no caissons, limbers nor ammunition boxes, and the guns had the appearance of having been picked up somewhere, hauled in and dumped temporarily to await removal to some other place. Among these guns were two short and very common-looking iron 24-pounders, entirely dismounted, and with the following inscription, in small capitals, engraved deeply on each [side]:
Presented to The Republic of Texas by Maj. Gen. T. J. Chambers.
On brass plates attached to the wooden carriages of each of two other guns, iron 6-pounders, much more symmetrical in shape and appearance, was the following, the first line in Old English:
Twin Sisters. This gun was used with terrible effect at the Battle of San Jacinto. Presented to the State of Texas by the State of Louisiana, March 4, 1861. HENRY W. ALLAN, CHARLES G. BRUSLE, WILLIAM G. AUSTIN, Committee on Presentation.
Dr. Alex Dienst, who had been in pursuit of the Twin Sisters cannons for more than twenty years, attempted to rationalize the M. A. Sweetman and Charles Evans accounts in 1913:
The letter that Charles Evans thought was at variance with the circumstances as he was acquainted with them is here given. The difference being that Charles Evans only noted an inscription in 1864 upon the trail of the carriages, a small silver plate with the inscription “Twin Sisters” engraved in script. Necessarily as the carriages were admittedly not the original ones, the original plates were not upon them; it may be some relic hunter removed the original plates while at Austin. Or possibly to entirely reconcile the two statements the original carriages abandoned at Austin were later sent to Houston with the inscriptions still upon them, and were the remains as viewed by M. A. Sweetman. These carriages in their turn may have been utilized after once being abandoned and had guns placed upon them, possibly not as heavy as the original 6-pounders, and therefore sufficiently strong to answer as a makeshift.
The two statements thus viewed are not necessarily at variance with each other. They both agree that at this time these particular cannons were at or near Houston, and they both at least imply that they were not in optimal condition. Specifically which cannons these were is still debated by researchers.
After the Civil War, the Louisiana Twins were shipped east, where one of the carriage plaques was found in New York. The plaque was sent to Governor Pat Neff in 1924 and placed in the Mayborn Museum at Baylor University.
Much debate has taken place regarding the possibility that, as some historians suggest, the Cincinnati Twin Sisters were among the artillery pieces that Col. John S. “Rip” Ford took to Brownsville and were ultimately present at the battle of Palmito Ranch. Then, having been left at Fort Brown, the guns may have been shipped back east by the Union Army and melted for scrap iron.
A prolific story emerged in April 1893, shortly after the Galveston Daily News on April 8, 1893, published a request by the Daughters of the Republic of Texas in an effort to discover the location of the famous Twin Sisters cannons. Dr. Henry North Graves provided his details, published in the April 20, 1893, issue of the Galveston Daily News, of the events that transpired.
"After Lee’s surrender Walter L. Mann’s regiment, which had been stationed at Galveston, left the island. Dr. Graves belonged to company K of Mann’s regiment. At Harrisburg they were persuaded by Magruder and Governor Murrah to return and hold the city five days….at the end of the fifth day only about seventy-five [soldiers] remained.” After the failed attempt, the soldiers returned to Harrisburg and disbanded in early June 1865. Graves recalled that “while driving around in the woods,” with his fellow Confederates near Harrisburg, they “found several abandoned cannon….Among the number were the Twin Sisters.” The group, which included Graves, John Barnett, Ira Prewitt, Sol. J. Thomas, and Jack Taylor, devised a plan to prevent the cannons from falling into Union hands, and they “dragged the caissons to the bayou and sank them out of sight forever.” They rolled the cannon carriages 300 to 400 yards into the woods, dissembled the carriages, threw the iron rims into the bayou, and “dug two deep holes” for the cannon barrels. They covered the graves with brush and burned the wooden parts of the carriage, so that the smoldering remains “gave the impression of an abandoned camp fire."
One of the Confederate soldiers, Ira Prewitt, searched for the cannons in the late 1880s and was aided by a local Harrisburg ex-Confederate soldier, Francis Bailey. Afterward, Prewitt wrote Bailey a letter providing details he had remembered and confirmed.
In 1895, during the United Confederate Veterans reunion in Houston, three of the group, Graves, Barnett, and Thomas reunited. They took sheets of paper, and each drew the situation as they had remembered with the identification trees. The papers were compared and found identical. Graves and Barnett then visited the site and found three of the marker trees and two of the stones but failed to locate the cannons. Graves was always adamant that they had confirmed the Twin Sisters by sight and the inscription on the cannons, which read “Gift Guns From the Ladies of Cincinnati.”
Capt. W. C. Day, superintendent of public buildings and grounds, arranged a trip with Graves in an effort to recover the cannons in 1909. Captain Day had been quite active for some time to locate the six-pounders. On August 10, 1909, Day was accompanied by Graves, and the party included Belle Fenn and Mrs. Rosine Ryan, prominent in the United Daughters of the Confederacy. The group disembarked at San Jacinto Park on Buffalo Bayou and made the trip to Harrisburg. The event, though covered with great interest by the newspapers, was unsuccessful.
Graves returned in 1920 at the invitation of the Houston Chronicle to attend the United Confederate Veterans reunion in Houston. The Chronicle had also arranged a touring car to include, in addition to the driver, Graves, well-known writer and vice president of the Texas Press Association Mamie Wynne Cox, and the mayor of Harrisburg James Deady. After a brief tour of Harrisburg, the touring car arrived at the site of the old G.H. & H. Depot, which stood at the rail crossing of the original B.B.B. & C. railroad. At length the lot of the Doctor Valentine old home was located, and from this point and the depot, Graves estimated that he could approximate the location at least within an acre. Arrival at the depot invigorated the aging Graves and gave him the strength to tramp over rough ground and to recall distinguishing landmarks.
Mamie Wynne Cox published the 1920 touring car article in July 1921, only after the passing of Graves in June, and some nine months after the October 1920 touring car episode. She noted that Graves had lived in hopes that the Texas legislature would make an appropriation for the search. She added that during the Thirty-seventh legislature Senators McNealus, Murphy, and Wood introduced a resolution in the Senate for the recovery of the “Twin Sisters” cannons. It was referred to the committee on finance; the vote was eight for and eleven against, and the measure died in the committee room.
In 1899 Graves, realizing that he was the last survivor of the group that buried the cannons, wrote with a heavy heart: “…in our love for them and our State pride, hid them from the desecrating hands of the despoiler. We did for the little pets what at that time we would gladly have done to each of us—buried them from the face of their conquerors.”
His decades of searching, however, may have been for nought. A brief statement in the September 1, 1865, edition of the Houston Tri-Weekly Telegraph reported, “Two brass cannon were found, yesterday, buried, about three miles from this city.” Very possibly, within a few months of their burial, the same guns were dug up and therefore nothing was there to be found in the decades after that. Author James Woodrick has proposed that these recovered cannons were bronze six-pounders of the Houston Artillery Company and were then shipped east in the winter of 1865–66.
Research regarding a more complete chronology of the Cincinnati Twin Sisters, their fate, and the debate about their caliber continues in the twenty-first century.
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Baton Rouge Gazette, April 1, 1861. The Civilian and Gazette (Galveston), April 16, 1861. Galveston Daily News, April 9, 1861; February 28, 1878; April 8, 20, 1893; November 14, 1909. Houston Chronicle, October 7, 1920; July 3, 1921. Houston Daily Post, August 13, 1899; August 11, 22, 1909. Houston Tri-Weekly Telegraph, September 1, 1865. "Origin Of The Twin Sisters Cannon," The History Investigator (https://www.thehistoryinvestigator.com/origin-of-twin-sisters-cannon), accessed June 2, 2022. San Antonio Express, March 23, 1913. Telegraph and Texas Register, August 18, 1838. Frank X. Tolbert, The Day of San Jacinto (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959; 2d ed., Austin: Pemberton Press, 1969). "Twin Sisters Cannon—Exacting The Location," The History Investigator (https://www.thehistoryinvestigator.com/twin-sisters-cannon-exacting-the-location), accessed June 2, 2022. Amelia W. Williams and Eugene C. Barker, eds., The Writings of Sam Houston, 1813–1863 (8 vols., Austin: University of Texas Press, 1938–43; rpt., Austin and New York: Pemberton Press, 1970). E. W. Winkler, "The Twin Sisters Cannon, 1836–1865," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 21 (July 1917). Jesse A. Ziegler, Wave of the Gulf (San Antonio: Naylor, 1938). James V. Woodrick, Cannons of the Texas Revolution (San Bernadino: CreateSpace, 2015). James Woodrick, “What Happened to the Twin Sisters and The Imposters?” April 8, 2022, latest revision, texashistorysnippets (http://texashistorysnippets.blogspot.com/), accessed May 5, 2022. Dr. S. O. Young, True Stories of Old Houston and Houstonians; Historical and Personal Sketches (Galveston: Oscar Springer, Publisher, 1913).
The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.
Jeffrey William Hunt
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