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CENIZO INDIANS. The Cenizo (Cenis, Ceniz, Seniso, Zenizo) Indians were well-known Coahuiltecan Indians of northeastern Mexico during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Some entered Mission San Antonio Galindo Moctezuma (north of Monclova, Coahuila) in 1698, and shortly thereafter others entered San Francisco Solano Mission near the site of present Eagle Pass, Texas. In 1718, when San Francisco Solano was transferred to San Antonio and became known as San Antonio de Valero, some of these Cenizos moved with it. The baptismal records at Valero include such names as Censoc, Censoo, Seniczo, Senixzo, Sinicu, and Siniczo, all of which seem to be variants of Cenizo. However, H. E. Bolton has identified two groups: Cenizo (with Siniczo as a synonym) and Sinicu (with Censoc, Censoo, Seniczo, and Senixzo as synonyms). J. R. Swanton followed Bolton by listing Cenizo (Seniso) as separate Coahuiltecan bands. Reanalysis of the primary documents is needed in order to clarify this matter.


Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). Joseph Antonio Fernández de Jáuregui Urrutia, Description of Nuevo León, Mexico (1735–1740), ed. Malcolm D. McLean and Eugenio del Hoyo (Monterrey: Instituto Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores, 1964). Esteban L. Portillo, Apuntes para la historia antigua de Coahuila y Texas (Saltillo: Tipografía "El Golfo de México" de Severo Fernández, 1886). J. R. Swanton, Linguistic Material from the Tribes of Southern Texas and Northeastern Mexico (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1940).

Thomas N. Campbell

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Thomas N. Campbell, "CENIZO INDIANS," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed December 01, 2015. Uploaded on June 12, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.