CÍBOLA INDIANS. This name, which means "bison," was used by the Spanish to refer to various Indian groups that specialized in bison hunting. In the Texas area one group of Cíbola (Cíbolo, Cíbula, Síbolo, Síbula, Zívolo) lived in western Texas in close association with the nomadic branch of the Jumano Indians. In the late seventeenth century both groups were bison hunters and traders who traveled widely in Texas and northern Mexico. In the warm season they ranged the area between El Paso and the Hasinai country of eastern Texas but spent the winter in the Indian towns near the site of present Presidio. Such evidence as is available suggests that the Cíbola were originally occupants of the southern plains between the Pecos and Colorado rivers. They appear to have been displaced by the southward movement of Apache groups and to have moved into the Trans-Pecos region. Continued Apache pressure in the eighteenth century led to their disappearance as an ethnic group. Some Cíbolas were evidently absorbed by the Apaches and others by the Spanish-speaking population of northern Chihuahua. The linguistic affiliation of the Cíbola Indians remains unknown.
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The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.Handbook of Texas Online, Thomas N. Campbell, "Cibola Indians," accessed March 22, 2017, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmc60.
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