NORTEÑOS. The term Norteños, used in reference to a group of Indian tribes in eighteenth century Texas, was popularized with the destruction in 1758 of Mission Santa Cruz de San Sabá by an alliance of tribes living north of the Spanish settlements. Thus, the term has come to be used, in historical context, as synonymous with "northern tribes." Jay C. Blaine has defined it as "a label created by eighteenth century Spanish authorities mainly for lumping together the contrary Texas Wichita-speaking groups and their affiliates." More specifically, the term as used in Spanish documents of the period included members of the Wichita and Caddo confederacies, plus Tonkawan affiliates and Comanchesqv.
Jay C. Blaine, "A Summary and Discussion of Additional Findings at the Gilbert Site, an Eighteenth-Century Norteño Occupation in Rains County, Texas," Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 63 (1992). Donald E. Chipman, Spanish Texas, 1519–1821 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992). Robert S. Weddle, After the Massacre: The Violent Legacy of the San Sabá Mission (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2007).
Image Use Disclaimer
All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.
For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.Robert S. Weddle, "NORTENOS," Handbook of Texas Online (http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmn28), accessed November 30, 2015. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
Get Texas history everyday,
with day by day
Each day's email tells a little bit more of the story of Texas and links to our collection of more than 27,000 articles