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PACHALAQUE INDIANS. The Pachalaque (Pachalaca, Pachalate) Indians were associated with Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de Acuña Mission in San Antonio, which they began to enter as early as 1733. Their aboriginal range is unknown, but it is suspected that they came from the area south or southwest of San Antonio. Swanton listed them as probable Coahuiltecan speakers. The Pachalaque Indians are not to be confused with the Pajalat Indians, who were also at Concepción Mission, as well as at nearby San Francisco de la Espada Mission. The separateness of Pachalaque and Pajalat Indians is supported by mission records, which list individuals of both groups on the same page and include one reference to the marriage of a Pachalaque Indian to a Pajalat. However, the similarities in the names Pachalaque and Pachaloco raise questions of possible identity that cannot be answered at present.


Herbert E. Bolton, "Spanish Mission Records at San Antonio," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 10 (April 1907). Herbert Eugene Bolton, Texas in the Middle Eighteenth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1915; rpt., Austin: University of Texas Press, 1970). Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). J. R. Swanton, Linguistic Material from the Tribes of Southern Texas and Northeastern Mexico (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1940).

Thomas N. Campbell


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Thomas N. Campbell, "PACHALAQUE INDIANS," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed October 04, 2015. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.