PINANACA INDIANS. The Pinanaca (Pimanco, Pinaca, Pinanca, Piranaca, and other variants) Indians are primarily linked with eastern Coahuila, but their range extended northward across the Rio Grande south of the Edwards Plateau. They were first recorded in 1674–75 in northeastern Coahuila and the adjoining part of Texas, where they were said to live on roots, fruits, fish, deer, and bison. In 1687 they seem to have been associated with the Cabezas and other groups of southern Coahuila, and in 1693 they were listed as one of the Indian groups of western Coahuila and eastern Chihuahua. They survived in Coahuila until at least 1762. Their extension northward into Texas was probably connected with seasonal movement to fish in the Rio Grande and to hunt bison north of the river. Although Swanton listed the Pinanaca Indians as probably Coahuiltecan-speakers, their linguistic status remains uncertain. Hodge suggested that the Pinanacas may have been the same people as the Pamaque Indians of southern Texas, but no evidence supports this linkage.
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The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.Handbook of Texas Online, Thomas N. Campbell, "Pinanaca Indians," accessed January 23, 2017, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmp69.
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